Democracy needs to be defended, and intelligence is the first line of defence. However, the liberal-democratic norm of limited state intervention in the lives of citizens means that security and accountability are in tension insofar as their first principles are diametrically opposed: whereas openness and transparency are hallmarks of democratic governance, operational secrecy - in relation to other states, to democratic society, and to other parts of government - is the essence of intelligence tradecraft. Intelligence accountability reconciles democracy and security through transparent standards, guidelines, legal frameworks, executive directives, and international law. Evolving executive, legislative, judicial and bureaucratic mechanisms for intelligence oversight and review have become a distinct feature of democratic regimes.
Over recent decades administrative and executive accountability have been enhanced with legislative and judicial review. Using a most-similar systems design to compare intelligence accountability in the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, this book opens expands compliance as the sine qua non of intelligence to gauge effectiveness, efficiency, and innovation across the intelligence community. In the context of changing technology and threat vectors that have significantly affected, altered, and expanded the role, powers, and capabilities of intelligence, this book compares the institutions, composition, practices, characteristics, and cultures of intelligence accountability systems across the world's oldest and most powerful intelligence alliance. In an asymmetric struggle against adversaries who subscribe to an existential logic that is informed by neither rules nor principles, accountability has to reassure a sceptical public that the intelligence and security community plays by the same rules that democracies are committed to defend.
About the authors
Christian Leuprecht is Class of 1965 Professor in Leadership in the Department of Political Science and Economics at the Royal Military College of Canada, Director of the Institute of Intergovernmental Relations in the School of Policy Studies at Queen’s University, and Adjunct Research Professor in the Australian Graduate School of Policing and Security at Charles Sturt University.
Other titles by Christian Leuprecht
Public Security in Federal Polities
Essential Readings in Canadian Constitutional Politics
The Federal Idea
Essays in Honour of Ronald L. Watts
Europe without Soldiers?
Recruitment and Retention across the Armed Forces of Europe
Smaller Democracies' Role in Global Stability Operations
Canada: The State of the Federation 2006/07
Transitions: Fiscal and Political Federalism in an Era of Change
Spheres of Governance
Comparative Studies of Cities in Multilevel Governance Systems
Canada: The State of the Federation, 2004
Municipal-Federal-Provincial Relations in Canada