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Parks and Recreation

By 49thShelf
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tagged: play, parks, leisure
A eclectic collection of cool books about play, games and leisure.
But It's So Silly

But It's So Silly

A Cross-cultural Collage of Nonsense, Play and Poetry
edition:Paperback

How are ideas of play shaped by culture? What is imagination, or creativity, and where does poetry fit into this mix? For the past decade, award-winning children's author JonArno Lawson has been collecting children's poetry, lap rhymes, finger games and stories of how people interact with young children across the world, drawn to each culture's unique approach. In this wide-ranging collection we learn of language play from Malta, round games from Jamaica, Yiddish hand rhymes, and of the wonderfu …

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Fun, Taste, & Games

Fun, Taste, & Games

An Aesthetics of the Idle, Unproductive, and Otherwise Playful
edition:Hardcover
tagged : aesthetics

Reclaiming fun as a meaningful concept for understanding games and play.

“Fun” is somewhat ambiguous. If something is fun, is it pleasant? Entertaining? Silly? A way to trick students into learning? Fun also has baggage—it seems inconsequential, embarrassing, child's play. In Fun, Taste, & Games, John Sharp and David Thomas reclaim fun as a productive and meaningful tool for understanding and appreciating play and games. They position fun at the heart of the aesthetics of games. As beauty w …

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Beyond the Sea

Beyond the Sea

Navigating Bioshock
edition:eBook
also available: Hardcover Paperback

The Bioshock series looms large in the industry and culture of video games for its ambitious incorporation of high-minded philosophical questions and retro-futuristic aesthetics into the ultraviolent first-person shooter genre. Beyond the Sea marks ten years since the release of the original game with an interdisciplinary collection of essays on Bioshock, Bioshock 2, and Bioshock Infinite.

Simultaneously lauded as landmarks in the artistic growth of the medium and criticized for their compromised …

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Haven in the Heart of Halifax

Haven in the Heart of Halifax

An Illustrated History of the Public Gardens
edition:Paperback
tagged :

The Public Gardens is one of the finest examples of a Victorian garden anywhere in the world. Nestled in the heart of the city, this important public space has a fascinating history. When you enter the Public Gardens, it feels for a moment as if you have stepped back in time. Everything seems to slow down when you push open one of the iron gates and set foot on the winding gravel paths that meander throughout plantings of astonishing variety. It is seemingly timeless but, of course, it has chang …

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Strange Breed

Strange Breed

New Canadian Comedy
edited by Corey Redekop
edition:Paperback

In late 2014, in a commanding and condemning voice that brooked no argument, a devastating edict was handed down from high up on CanLit Mountain: “It seems to me that laughter is too easy a way to face the 'wilderness of this world'; you can too easily laugh yourself past the difficulties. Laughter is not a way to understand; it is, basically, a method of elusion.” These measured words of Governor General’s Award-winning novelist Rudy Wiebe were intended to once and for all settle the deba …

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Real Life Super Heroes

Real Life Super Heroes

edition:eBook
also available: Paperback

An in-depth look at the men and women who call themselves "Real Life Super Heroes."

Dressed like heroes from comic books and action movies, Real Life Super Heroes are out there. They dress up at night, fight crime, save people, and some of them even have secret identities. Are they ordinary, mild-mannered citizens, or are they larger-than-life characters, determined to fight crime, risking life and limb to defend victims of violence and injustice? And why do some choose to reveal their true iden …

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Excerpt

A good friend of mine initially piqued my interest in Real Life Super Heroes. He told me about a news story he was watching. Some guy in a mask and Batman-like costume was making headlines by running around Seattle fighting crime. My friend explained that “Phoenix Jones” had been involved in a skirmish with a man who’d been beating on some other guy. Jones, the news said, was a mixed martial arts expert. He had intervened and was attempting to hold the attacker down in a headlock after calling 9-1-1. Before the authorities arrived, however, one of the assailant’s friends showed up and forced Jones at gunpoint to release the attacker. When Jones complied, the man he’d been holding kicked him in the face, breaking his nose. The story made the rounds of the national news. Even Saturday Night Live picked up on it and mocked Jones. But I was intrigued. Having spent the previous four years researching and writing a book about serial killers, I thought that maybe I’d stumbled onto a more positive story. I began research to see what else I could learn.
It wasn’t easy entering the world of Real Life Super Heroes. People who wear masks usually do so because they don’t want to be identified. It’s not like guys like Phoenix Jones have publicly listed phone numbers! I did manage to find an email address supposedly belonging to Jones, or PJ as people have come to call him. But my inquiries went unanswered. Other than what had been on the news and what little I could find online, I had nothing.
Well, not entirely nothing. In the course of my research I learned that there was a whole subculture of these Real Life Super Heroes. I came across a guy calling himself “Thanatos,” the personification of death. He was operating out of Vancouver, Canada. Unlike Jones, Thanatos didn’t “fight crime” per se, but spent his time doing outreach with Vancouver’s large homeless population. I didn’t quite understand at the time how his mission fit in with what Phoenix Jones was doing, but I was at least getting somewhere with this elusive community. Maybe it was his Canadian politeness coming through, but Thanatos actually answered my email and even agreed to participate in an email interview. In the course of our correspondence, I asked him if he happened to know how to get in touch with Phoenix Jones. I was somewhat surprised when he told me that he did but only indirectly. According to Thanatos, my best bet was to contact a man called Peter Tangen, a successful Hollywood photographer and unofficial PR man for a whole group of Real Life Super Heroes. Tangen was like a promoter/gatekeeper for some of the more prominent members of the RLSH community.
Reaching Tangen was a challenge. My emails went unanswered for days and then weeks. All I wanted was an interview with Seattle’s most famous superhero! I was about to get more persistent when Peter finally got back to me over the phone: “Nadia, I have an amazing opportunity for you. Something we have never done before.”
It turned out that “something” was a telephone conference call with five of the most notable RLSHs. I was especially fortunate because Jones, to this point, had refused all but in-person interviews. For once, he would make an exception.
It was already midnight as I waited by the phone and went over my interview questions one last time. Peter Tangen had arranged to have Phoenix Jones, Geist, Nyx, Phantom Zero, and DC’s Guardian on the line. The group represented a wide range of superhero styles. Jones was the crime fighter; Geist lends assistance to people who are in distress or suffering through natural disasters; Nyx was a former crime fighter who gave it up to focus on homeless outreach with her boyfriend Phantom Zero; and DC’s Guardian took it upon himself to teach people about their rights and responsibilities as citizens.
I dialed in to the conference number a few minutes early. The New Yorkers, Phantom Zero and Nyx, were already on the call. According to the pictures I had seen, Phantom Zero had one of the darkest and most frightening of the superhero costumes. He wears a black cape over his broad 6'4" frame. A white skull-like mask disguises his upper face, and black makeup hides the rest. A white shirt and red tie accent his attire. In short, not the kind of guy you’d want to run into in a dark alley if you didn’t know that he was a “good guy”!
I made small talk with Phantom Zero while we waited for the other participants to join the call. Since many of them had not spoken with each other in a long time and some of them had never even met, I gave them a few minutes to talk among themselves. Listening to them provided an interesting glimpse into their world. Rather than serious topics like crime fighting, I heard them chatting excitedly with one another and laughing. New introductions were punctuated with, “I’ve heard about you when you did …” or “Do you remember the day …?” After a few minutes, I welcomed them officially, thanked them for joining and started the interview.
“First of all,” I asked, “what are your duties as superheroes?”
DC’s Guardian answered first: “It’s my responsibility to protect people’s rights and privileges that this nation offers by teaching it to future generations. I strive to help the helpless and to educate people.”
During his military service, DC had had many different experiences. He now works for the government and travels domestically and internationally. As a superhero, he often stands on the streets, sharing pocket-sized copies of the United States’s founding documents, such as the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. Some people mock him without understanding his motivation. DC’s Guardian is one of the rare colourful superheroes. Most of them only wear one colour, black, but he proudly wears the red, white, and blue of his country.
Geist is probably the one with the most unique style. He projects an image that is more like a western-style hero with a noir flair. He wears a long duster-style trench coat. A green bandana covers his face while his sunglasses hide his eyes. A cowboy hat tops his outfit.
“I fight for the forgotten,” Geist says. “I defend and protect people who are overlooked by society, who slipped through the cracks. It could even be animals who are neglected in pet shelters and are in danger of being euthanized. It could be the environment. You know, the problems that we all just kind of gloss over as we go about our daily lives.”
Nyx was the next to speak: “My main goal is to help the helpless. Most of us have seen some undesirable things in our lives where people are suffering in one respect or another. That just prompted me to try to prevent further suffering. That was pretty much instilled in me at a young age. I realized that I could take a proactive stance on that and actually do something meaningful.”
Nyx, unlike most heroes, doesn’t hide her face. She also does not have a specific uniform, but dresses in many different ways. In her most popular picture, she’s wearing an alluring black and red outfit: a black fishnet shirt revealing a red bra. A crimson sheer scarf only slightly obscures her face below the eyes, and she leaves her beautiful long brown hair loose. She is also one of the few female superheroes who patrolled alone despite the inherent risk.
Phantom Zero contributed to the discussion next. “I pledged to myself to make a difference. I want to stress free thought. In the end, there is a very important message behind it. Personally, I want people to ask questions and find their own truth, their own personal journey. I want them to learn about what is important to them and to achieve it.”
“And how do you achieve that?” I asked.
He explained that he patrolled to find people in distress. He helps many of them to write and express their often-difficult emotions. He also does homeless outreach, donates to community centres, and encourages people to do good deeds around themselves.
Speaking a mile a minute, Phoenix Jones plunged in. “You’ll see a lot of the average person walking around who sees stuff but does nothing. I thought that was pretty cold. I have years of martial arts experience, a couple years of bodybuilding, and I am a certified nursing assistant. So I know how to deal with trauma and troublemakers. My criminal father taught me how criminals think. So I search for people and look for criminal activities. Make lots of sacrifice. I literally just neglect things because I’m out doing the things that I do. It’s borderline obsessive, and when I see something that is a crime and I know that I can stop it, it’s very hard to persuade me otherwise, as DC has found out. We’ve been on patrol where DC had to talk me down from stopping crime.”
Indeed, several of the superheroes work together. They travel far and wide to meet and collaborate, and it can be expensive and time-consuming. But they say that as they work together, relationships are developed and their efforts are amplified through collaboration.
“I’m not going to say it’s everyone’s message,” added Phantom Zero, “but superheroes are not a mythology. They are ideals and virtues. They are a manifestation of people pretty much empowering themselves. So I feel a part of a community when we do this. It’s something that we do, it means a lot to us, and it’s very symbolic.”

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How to Invent Everything

How to Invent Everything

A Survival Guide for the Stranded Time Traveler
edition:Hardcover

An NPR Best Book of 2018
"How to Invent Everything is such a cool book. It's essential reading for anyone who needs to duplicate an industrial civilization quickly." --Randall Munroe, xkcd creator and New York Times-bestselling author of What If?
The only book you need if you're going back in time

What would you do if a time machine hurled you thousands of years into the past. . . and then broke? How would you survive? Could you improve on humanity's original timeline? And how hard would it be t …

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Excerpt

2

 

a special note if you are stranded

 

between 200,000 bce and 50,000 bce and you are thinking, "the humans here are crazy

 

and i am definitely doomed forever"

 

Great news! You can actually be the most influential person in history!

 

BAs your careful study of the flowchart on the previous pages likely revealed, humans first evolved around the year 200,000 BCE. We call them "anatomically modern humans," and they mark the moment when humans with skeletons exactly the same as ours first appeared. As an experiment, we could put your skeleton beside that of an anatomically modern human from 200,000 years ago and it would be impossible to tell them apart.

 

We will not be performing this experiment, but we could.

 

But what's fascinating is despite the fact that modern human bodies were now available, nothing really changed. For more than 150,000 years, these humans behaved pretty much the same as any other protohuman species. And then, around the year 50,000 BCE, something happened: these anatomically modern humans suddenly started acting like us. They began to fish, create art, bury their dead, and decorate their bodies. They began to think abstractly.

 

Most important, they began to talk.

 

The technology of language-and it is a technology, it's something we've had to invent, and it took us over 100,000 years to do it-is the greatest gift we humans have ever given ourselves. You can still think without language-close your eyes and imagine a really cool hat and you've just done it-but it limits the kinds of thoughts you can have. Cool hats are easy to imagine, but the meaning of the sentence "Three weeks from tomorrow, have your oldest stepsister meet me on the southeast corner two blocks east from the first house we egged last Halloween" is extremely difficult to nail down without having concrete words for the concepts of time, place, numbers, relationships, and spooky holidays. And if you're struggling to express complex thoughts even in your own head, it's pretty evident that you won't be having those complex thoughts as often, or at all.

 

It was language that gave us the ability to imagine better, grander, more world-changing ideas than we otherwise could, and most important, it gave us the ability to store an idea not just in our own heads but inside the minds of others. With language, information can spread at the speed of sound, or, if you're using sign language instead of speaking, at the speed of light. Shared ideas lead to communities, which are the basis of culture and civilization, and which brings us to our first Civilization Pro Tip:

 

civilization pro tip: Language is the technology from which all others spread, and you've already got it for free.

 

This huge expanse of time-the 150,000 years between 200,000 BCE, when humans first appeared, to 50,000 BCE, when they finally started talking-is where you can have the single greatest effect on history. If you can help humans of this era become behaviorally modern as soon as they became anatomically modern-if you can teach them to talk-then you can give every civilization on the planet a 150,000-year head start.

 

It's probably worth the effort.

 

We once thought the change from anatomical to behavioral modernity was due to some physical change in our brains. Perhaps a random genetic mutation in one human-who suddenly found themselves able to communicate in ways no animal had done before-provided us with the huge advantage of a new capacity for abstract thought? However, the historical record doesn't support the idea of this great leap forward. The things we most associate with behavioral modernity-art, music, clever tools, burying the dead, making ourselves look cooler with jewelry and body paint-all appear before the breakthrough around 50,000 BCE, but in fits and starts, appearing locally and then disappearing. Much like the magic that rhetorical wizards have long revealed was actually inside us all along, so too have humans had the capacity for language. We just needed to unlock it.

 

The unique challenge facing you in this era is how to teach a language to people when the very idea of spoken language may be new to them. It's important to remember that most humans you encounter may not have language, but they'll still communicate with one another, through grunts and body language. All you need to do is move them from grunts to words, and don't worry: a complicated language like English with things like "subjunctive clauses" and "imperfect futures" (used here in the grammatical sense, not the time-travel sense) is not necessary, and you can get by with a simplified version of the language you already know, called "pidgin." You will also have better results if you focus on teaching children. The older humans are, the harder it is for them to learn languages, and fluent acquisition of a first language becomes much more challenging-if not impossible-after puberty.

 

 

civilization pro tip: Babies begin to focus on the noises used in language around them after about six months of age, so if you're inventing a language from scratch, you'll likely have more success incorporating whatever sounds the baby is already hearing from its parents.

 

Remember: evolution happens very slowly, and even 200,000 years ago the people you'll encounter are humans, just like you-indistinguishable at the biological level. They just need to be taught.

 

You can teach them.

 

And you will be remembered as a god.3

 

the five fundamental technologies

 

you need for your civilization

 

No, the list is not "a really good computer" five times.

 

BYour civilization is going to be founded on five technologies. Each of these technologies is information-based: once you have the idea of them, the rest pretty much follows. Because these technologies are conceptual rather than physical, they are extremely resilient: they are ideas, and ideas cannot be destroyed as long as members of your civilization survive (or at least some of their books do, see Section 10.11.2: Printing Presses).

 

While the five technologies listed on the following pages are all but invented once you understand the ideas behind them, they each nevertheless took an embarrassingly long time for us, as humans, to figure out.

 

Please carefully examine the following extremely embarrassing table.

 

Technology         First invented    When we could've invented it    Years spent not having this technology when we easily could have              This same time period, now expressed as how many colossal 500-year Roman Empires could've both risen and fallen in the huge expanse of time humanity spent sitting around not inventing this technology

 

Spoken language              50,000 BCE          200,000 BCE       150,000 years    300

 

Written language             3200 BCE             200,000 BCE       196,800 years    393

 

Non-sucky numbers       650 CE  200,000 BCE       200,650 years    401

 

The scientific method    1637 CE                200,000 BCE       201,637 years    403

 

Calorie surplus  10,500 BCE          200,000 BCE       189,500 years    379

 

Table 1: A table any human should be embarrassed to even be in the same room with.

 

As these are the absolute technological foundations of civilization, we will now go over the specifics of each. 3.1

 

spoken language

 

Listen to those voices in your head.

 

BBefore spoken language, humans communicated through grunts and body language. This allowed us to do the following things:

 

draw attention to ourselves

 

make noises or gestures expressing emotions like "fear" or "anger"

 

cry

 

Unfortunately, these expressions are easily misunderstood. As an example, babies-famously pre-linguistic-are notoriously difficult to understand. A baby's cry could indicate "I'm sad" or "I'm hungry" or "I'm tired" or "I'm frustrated" or several other emotions, but there's no way to tell what the child actually wants besides giving the baby different things to see if that satisfies it (a short-term solution) or, if you prefer a long-term solution, by gradually teaching the child a language over the course of the next several years until you can finally ask, "Hey, what was all that crying about when you were sixteen weeks old?"

 

In contrast, spoken language allows us to do the following things:

 

draw attention to ourselves

 

make noises or gestures precisely expressing nuanced emotions, like "fear of one day being trapped in the distant past," or "distinct anger at having now become trapped in the distant past"

 

cry (with words)

 

have ideas survive the death of their host

 

conceive of more complex ideas than we could otherwise express

 

transmit complicated sentiment with a reasonable confidence of minimal loss, corruption, or misunderstanding of intent

 

We tend to think of language as something natural, some property of the universe that we're exploiting. But it's not: we made it up, and it's arbitrary. However, while the sounds you choose, the order you put words in, and the ways words can interact and change one another are all up to you, there are some recurring patterns that you may want to keep in mind.

 

These "linguistic universals," as they're called, are found in every natural language on Earth, and while they're not mandatory-people can and have constructed artificial languages that don't use them-they may make it easier for people to use your new language. Please commit the following table to memory:

 

Universal property          Description of this property         Example phrases using this property       A grim vision into a dystopian world where this property does not exist

 

Pronouns exist in all natural languages.  Pronouns are words that let us refer to something without repeating the name of that thing.         I rented the FC3000ª time machine. It is as reliable as it is well designed, and I am happy to recommend it to everyone without reservation. I rented the FC3000ª time machine. The FC3000ª time machine is as reliable as the FC3000ª time machine is well designed, and I am happy to recommend the FC3000ª time machine to everyone without reservation.

 

No "thbbbth" sounds.    Spoken languages are built from the noises our bodies can make, but no natural language uses the "blow a raspberry" tongue-out-of-the-mouth thbbbth sound.    To be, or not to be: that is the question. To thbbbth, or not to thbbbth: that is the questhbbbbbbbttbbbbth.

 

If the language has a word for "feet," it also has a word for "hands," and if it has a word for "toes," it also has a word for "fingers."      Hands are generally more useful to most humans than feet, so if we've reached a point where we're naming body parts and gotten around to naming our feet, we've definitely already named our hands too.               I have ten toes and ten fingers. Yes, Chad, I know technically I only have eight fingers. Chad, yes, I know thumbs aren't fingers. Everyone knows, I was just . . . Chad. Chad. Chad, listen to me. See, Chad, this is why we don't hang out anymore.            I have ten toes and ten, uh . . . extra-bendy upper toes? Yes, Chad, I know two of my extra-bendy upper toes are opposable and therefore should be classified differently. Chad, listen to me. Chad. Chad. I'm doing the best with the words I've got, Chad.

 

All languages have vowels.          Vowels are sounds produced with an open mouth and often form the core of a syllable. For example, "cat" uses a as a vowel and c and t as consonants. It's hard to speak without vowels.            Chad, can we please talk about something else? Anything, Chad. Please.             Thhhbbbttth

 

Universal property          Description of this property         Example phrases using this property       A grim vision into a dystopian world where this property does not exist

 

All languages

have verbs.         Verbs are action words, which allow us to talk about things happening to other things. Since things tend to happen a lot on Earth, they are useful words to keep around.      The quick brown fox jumps over the reliable FC3000ª time machine and is happy to recommend it without reservation.            The quick brown fox. The reliable FC3000ª time machine. Happy without reservation.

 

All languages

have nouns.       Nouns are people, places, or things. They are objects or ideas in the world. Since there are a lot of those on Earth, they're useful to keep around too.            The quick brown fox jumps over the reliable FC3000ª time machine and is happy to recommend it without reservation.        The quick brown. Jumps. Reliable. Is happy to recommend.

 

Table 2: One advantage of being trapped in the past is you will have finally escaped Chad.

 

Which language you choose to build your civilization on is a matter of personal preference, and there are no wrong answers here. But while you have your choice of languages to build your civilization on, this also means you have the opportunity to fix these languages. Don't like English's pronoun system or French's insistence on giving every object in the universe its own entirely imaginary gender? Well, now's your chance to fix them forever.

 

Spoken languages solve a lot of problems with very few downsides, and they're a technology you're already carrying around in your head. However, they still share one tremendous vulnerability: they rely on human beings to transmit information. If a group of humans dies together, so too do their ideas. You can do better.

 

You are about to.

 

3.2

 

written language

 

The technology that made the spelling mistake possible.

 

BWhile the spoken word is great, it still suffers from significant limitations. It frees ideas from their original host, but it allows ideas to be transmitted only as far as the speaker can travel, or can shout, or can travel while shouting. Most critically, it depends on an unbroken chain of humanity for ideas to survive. Break this chain even once, and all information in it is lost forever.

 

Writing solves this problem. It allows ideas to become resilient, stronger than our fragile human bodies, which tend to get old and die all the time. It allows ideas to become fixed, immune to changing memories and historical revision. It allows ideas to be broadcast, reaching a much larger audience than could ever listen to your spoken words. Writing even allows ideas to survive not only when their original host has died, not only when everyone who has ever heard them has died, but even when everyone who has ever spoken their language has died too: the deciphering of Egyptian hieroglyphs being the greatest example of this. Most incredibly, writing allows information to be shipped around the world with no more difficulty or expense than you'd encounter shipping grain: less, actually, since books don't go bad nearly as quickly. Despite its huge advantages, humans have spent most of their time on Earth-over 98 percent of it-stumbling around without this technology.

 

Like spoken language, which written language you choose to base your civilization around is not particularly important, but we do recommend (assuming you are multilingual or feeling ambitious) choosing a language that is not English. That prevents you from accidentally teaching others how to read this text, which may be something worth considering, especially since your current temporal circumstances have conspired to make this book the most insanely valuable and dangerous item on the planet.

 

Though the idea behind writing is simple-store invisible noises by transforming them into visible shapes-the invention of writing was actually an incredibly difficult thing for humans to do. It's so difficult, in fact, that across all of human history, it has happened a grand total of two times:

 

in Egypt and Sumer around 3200 BCE.

 

in Mesoamerica between 900 and 600 BCE.

 

Writing shows up in other locations, such as China in 1200 BCE, but this is a result of the Egyptians culturally contaminating the Chinese. Similarly, Egyptian and Sumerian script developed at very close to the same time, and while visually quite distinct, they share many of the same influences. One of these cultures invented writing while the other just lifted the idea, probably after seeing what a superuseful invention it was.

 

There are two other times when writing may have been invented: in India around 2600 BCE, and on Easter Island after 1200 CE but before 1864 CE. (We say "may" because this is one of several historical mysteries still unresolved. Confirmation could easily be obtained with an incident-free visit to the times and places in question, but for some reason most time travelers have historically been more interested in "experiencing the colossal breadth of human experience" rather than "settling obscure linguistic debates by running controlled temporal observation with an eye to publishing peer-reviewed research.")

 

The older Indian script (called "Indus") is pictographic and has never been deciphered. Most messages written in Indus script are short (just five characters) which does not suggest an actual language, but rather simpler pictograms or ideograms. What are pictograms and ideograms? We're very glad you asked:

 

Pictograms are when an item is represented by a picture of that thing: an image of fire, for example, means "fire." Along similar lines, the little icon of an envelope on the latest mass-market portable music player you purchased represents "email." When used in protowriting, pictograms can function as a memory aid to help remember an event or story, or simply as decoration.

 

Ideograms are when a collection of ideas are represented by a single picture: an image of a water drop could represent rain, but also tears or sadness. An image of sunglasses could represent extremely cool sunglasses, but also sunlight, fashion, or popularity. An image of a peach shaped so it looks like buttocks could represent either peaches, buttocks, or any number of activities humans have discovered they can perform with either.

 

It's important to note that neither pictograms nor ideograms are language, because there is no one-to-one correspondence between them and their meaning. Pictograms and ideograms are interpreted rather than read. As an example, consider the following images:

 

There are several different ways to interpret those images. If you know the story they're trying to tell, these pictures can remind you of it, but if you don't, you will have to make lots of assumptions. Perhaps it is the story of a very cool woman eating a peach. Perhaps it is the tale a regular woman eating a very cool peach. We will never know.

 

In contrast, the sentence "Cynthia waved, her hair catching in the warm ocean breeze, and in her sunglasses I saw reflected a horrible, monstrous giant peach: it was my body, forever transformed by those hateful scientists I'd once cut off in traffic" has a meaning that's much more clearly defined. While there is ambiguity in any language, the non-ideographic version has a much more particular and specific meaning than the alternative.

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Playing Smart

Playing Smart

On Games, Intelligence, and Artificial Intelligence
edition:Hardcover

A new vision of the future of games and game design, enabled by AI.

Can games measure intelligence? How will artificial intelligence inform games of the future? In Playing Smart, Julian Togelius explores the connections between games and intelligence to offer a new vision of future games and game design. Video games already depend on AI. We use games to test AI algorithms, challenge our thinking, and better understand both natural and artificial intelligence. In the future, Togelius argues, game …

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