During World War One, and originating in Britain, military vessels were painted with strong geometric patterns and bold contrasting colouration so as to misinform U-boat captains. The intention was optical deception: to mislead the eye and manipulate visual perception of the size, distance, and even the direction of vessels to make their targeting difficult or impossible. These patterns came to be called "Dazzle," "Razzle Dazzle," or "Jazz." Arthur Lismer, an Official Canadian War Artist working in Halifax, documented the Dazzle ships in his work. Represented in the catalogue are the works of several other artists such as Jack Bush, Ray Mead, Guido Moninari, and Rita Letendre. From this, the use of abstraction may have shifted from the utilitarian needs of the military to the aesthetic concerns of the visual arts. An entire generation of mid-twentieth century Canadian artists thus directly or indirectly learned the lessons of camouflage - lessons that had critical impact upon the development of modernist abstract art.