Showing 1-8 of 67 books
Sort by:
View Mode:
Installing Automobility

Installing Automobility

Emerging Politics of Mobility and Streets in Indian Cities
More Info

Performance of Concrete

Resistance of Concrete to Sulphate and Other Environmental Conditions; A Symposium in Honour of Thorbergur Thorvaldson
edited by E.G. Swenson
More Info
Lemon-Aid New and Used Cars and Trucks 2007–2018


“A 2012 Trillium study of vehicle advertising in Ontario found that approximately 73 percent of automobile advertisements placed by automobile manufacturers were not in the spirit of the Motor Vehicle Dealers Association – where a consumer could understand the final cost of a vehicle in a clear, comprehensive and prominent manner. In other words, if a dealer would have placed similar ads, we are confident the dealer would be in violation of the MVDA’s advertising regulations.”
Trillium Automobile Dealers Association (TADA) 2016, as submitted to the Ontario Committee on Finance and Economic Affairs

Lemon-Aid supports TADA’s conclusion that carmakers’ ads are deceptive. And, as it’s coming from Canada’s largest provincial new car dealer association with a membership of over 1,000 dealers – that’s almost a third of all new car dealers in Canada – government regulators should be listening.

More Choice, Better Deals

Fueled by low crude-oil prices, rock-bottom interest rates and extended-term loans, Canadians binged on new vehicles in 2017. New vehicle sales over the last 5 years have smashed all previous records. However, over the same period, passenger-car sales have slumped as consumers embraced crossovers, SUVs and pickup trucks, encouraged by the perceived utility of driving a multipurpose vehicle. Changing consumer tastes enabled Fiat Chrysler, Ford and General Motors to make windfall profits by pushing fully-loaded, technology-laden pickup trucks and sport utilities.
With light trucks and SUVs outselling cars two to one in North America, the trend has prompted Fiat Chrysler Automobiles to drop all but a couple of car models from its lineup. Slow sedan sales have also been troublesome for Ford and GM. Reportedly, GM is contemplating killing the decades-old Chevrolet Impala, as well as the Buick LaCrosse, Cadillac CT6 and XTS. All are large sedans few shoppers find appealing anymore.
Although motorists welcome the savings at the pump, lower gas prices aren’t entirely good for the auto industry or the environment. Shoppers have been turning away from “greener” mini-compacts, diesels and hybrids. Despite a lot of cheerleading from the green lobby, electric vehicle sales still don’t amount to more than a drop in the bucket – with the exception of the $100,000 Tesla Model S.
Despite the increasingly advanced technology under the hood and in the dashboard, carmakers have managed to mostly hold the line on price increases of new vehicles. To “move the iron” dealers are sweetening rebates, adding standard equipment and pushing new car loans for up to 96 months to shrink monthly payments, often at near-zero interest. Leasing is immensely popular again, especially when it comes to luxury brands. There have been some price increases, of course, that the industry has camouflaged by increasing “Transport and Preparation” fees, reducing dealer margins, and promoting bargain-priced models in their advertising – which you will have trouble finding at dealerships.
On the used-car side, Canada’s weaker loonie has resulted in a robust export market to the United States for used luxury vehicles, pickups and SUVs, and driven up prices for used vehicles. Agents acting on behalf of U.S. dealers are buying up late-model used vehicle inventories from Canadian dealers, leaving consumers to sift through the remainders. According to auto industry analyst Dennis DesRosiers, more than 300,000 used cars and trucks were plucked from the Canadian market in 2016.

Here Today, Gone Tomorrow

Here’s a look at new or significant model replacements for 2018. 
2018 Models


  • Audi A5 Sportback
  • Audi Q5
  • BMW X2
  • BMW X3
  • Buick Enclave
  • Buick Regal Sportback
  • Cadillac XTS
  • Chevrolet Equinox
  • Chevrolet Traverse
  • Ford EcoSport
  • Ford Expedition
  • Ford Mustang
  • Genesis G70
  • Genesis G80 Sport
  • GMC Terrain
  • Honda Accord
  • Honda Civic Type R
  • Honda Odyssey
  • Hyundai Accent
  • Hyundai Elantra GT
  • Hyundai Kona
  • Hyundai Veloster
  • Infiniti QX50
  • Jeep Wrangler
  • Kia Rio
  • Kia Stinger
  • Kia Stonic
  • Lexus LS500
  • Lincoln Navigator
  • Mercedes-Benz E-Class Coupe/Cabriolet
  • MINI Countryman
  • Mitsubishi Eclipse Cross
  • Nissan Leaf
  • Nissan Qashqai
  • Smart Fortwo Electric Drive
  • Subaru Ascent
  • Subaru Crosstrek
  • Toyota Camry
  • Toyota C-HR
  • Volkswagen Atlas
  • Volkswagen Tiguan
  • Volvo XC40
  • Volvo XC60


  • Infiniti QX70
  • Jeep Patriot
  • Lexus CT200h
  • Mitsubishi Lancer
  • Volkswagen CC
  • Volkswagen Touareg

Buying Tips

It’s good to be a patient shopper. Here are some time-tested tips.

1. Buy a vehicle that is relatively uncomplicated, easy to service and has been sold in large numbers over many years. This will ensure that cheaper, independent repair shops can provide service and there is a good supply of less expensive aftermarket parts.

2. The old axiom that there is a right way, a wrong way and an expensive European way to fix a car still holds true for most models from the European luxury carmakers. Dealer service is notoriously expensive after the warranty is over, parts can be very expensive, and only a few specialist independent garages invest in the expensive equipment needed to service them.

3. Think twice before you buy a diesel. Most give a poor return on expenditure, are complicated to service and dealer-dependent. Recent European “clean diesels” are dirtier and less reliable than their gasoline equivalents and expensive to maintain and repair.

4. Be wary of Chrysler, Dodge or Jeep models if you’re buying a new vehicle to own for the long haul. Fiat Chrysler is the weakest of the Detroit Three and its lineup has a history of serious safety- and performance-related defects, with the TIPM module being a case in point. A defective Totally Integrated Power Module, or TIPM, can introduce a tsunami of electrical faults, including no-start conditions, dead instruments, no cooling fan (leading to engine overheating) and random stalling. Automatic transmissions, brakes, the electrical system and air conditioners on several Fiat Chrysler group vehicles are also troublesome. On the other hand, the Canadian-made Dodge Charger and Chrysler 300 break the mould and are recommended buys. The Dodge RAM is a good pickup buy. However, the new EcoDiesel V6, supplied by Fiat, in the RAM 1500 light-duty pickup has been very troublesome.

5. Don’t be blinded by luxury brands. Higher-priced vehicles don’t ensure you will get a higher level of quality or reliability. Think Cadillac ATS and XTS, Lincoln MKS, MKT, MKX (with EcoBoost) and the VW Touareg. Many of the premium European brands, including Audi, BMW and Mercedes-Benz, are touted as the pinnacle of luxury and perfection, yet seasoned owners will tell you that these complex machines can break down regularly, especially after the factory warranty and no-charge service plan (a common sales incentive) expire. If you want a luxury badge, the Asian brands offer better reliability, with Lexus and Acura leading the pack.

6. Avoid turbocharged engines when it’s still possible if you’re planning to keep your vehicle for the long haul (8 years or more). Auto manufacturers are turning to turbocharged small engines to hit ever more ambitious fuel-economy targets set by the government. Unfortunately, in real-world driving they are often little more fuel efficient than larger six-cylinder and V8 engines, and not as smooth. For instance, the Automobile Protection Association (APA) found that 2013-2015 Fords with EcoBoost four-cylinder engines burn more fuel than similar models with conventional four-cylinder engines. Turbo-equipped vehicles can generate rosy numbers in laboratory fuel economy tests, where the acceleration cycle is so gentle that the turbo is hardly working, but the APA’s real-world evaluations revealed that the actual fuel consumption of some models is disappointing and the likelihood of expensive repairs down the road is higher. So far, Toyota has completely avoided turbocharged engines in its mainstream vehicles.

7. Don’t buy a Ford vehicle equipped with a dual-clutch (PowerShift) automatic transmission. Developed by Ford and Getrag, the automated six-speed is essentially a manual transmission with two clutches alternating to engage the gears. Electric solenoid actuation provides quick and efficient shifts, avoiding the hydraulic losses associated with torque converters. While it enhances economy, the complex transmission is jerky in operation and, ultimately, unreliable. Found in Focus and Fiesta models, the automatic transmission is extremely expensive to replace after the end of the warranty. Dual-clutch automatic transmissions in VW and Audi products are also troublesome, with expensive failures after the warranty expires.

8. Choose a used vehicle with a conventional hydraulic automatic transmission, or a manual gearbox if you are comfortable with a gearshift. Be wary of continuously variable (CVT) automatics in used vehicles. With the exception of Synergy Drive transmissions used in the Prius and other Toyota hybrids, all the automakers selling vehicles in North America with CVT automatics have been bedeviled by poor durability. Nissan CVT-equipped vehicles were so failure prone that the company extended its warranty for up to 10 years on vehicles produced until 2010. Nissan’s transmission subsidiary, Jatco, has supplied the same CVT transmission to other makes, such as Jeep. Fortunately, new vehicles with CVTs have become somewhat less risky, as materials, lubricants and computer programming have evolved to address durability concerns.

9. Check to see if the vehicle comes with a spare tire and jack, not a spray can of sealant and air compressor. Include this stipulation in the contract. If you wait until after the vehicle is delivered, the dealer will likely charge you $350+ for a space-saver spare, jack and tie-down assembly. Some models, like the MINI and certain BMWs, have no provision for a spare tire in their cargo areas. In that case, you will likely be stuck with hard-riding and more expensive run-flat tires, or required to call roadside assistance when a conventional tire goes flat.

10. Don’t buy a new vehicle with below-average reliability. Yes, an extended warranty can help address the risks that come with a vehicle that has a reputation for failures, but choosing a better vehicle is the better solution. New vehicles with poor reliability eventually suffer from plunging depreciation, which impacts your pocketbook at trade-in time. An alternative is to lease the vehicle if payments are attractive, with the knowledge that the automaker will be on the hook for major repairs and any loss on resale.

11. Use your credit card for the down payment and put down as little money as possible. If you want to cancel a sales contract or work order because a promised service wasn’t delivered, it’s easier to do with a credit card than with cash.

close this panel
British Columbia by the Road

British Columbia by the Road

Car Culture and the Making of a Modern Landscape
More Info
Lemon-Aid New and Used Cars and Trucks 2007–2017


Volkswagen Executives Have Started Hiring Criminal Defense Lawyers

There are little things that can tell you that the proverbial scheisse is about to hit the fan. One of those is when you cheat on emissions and executives start resigning. A much bigger one is when everyone starts hiring criminal defense lawyers, as Bloomberg reports:

Dozens of Volkswagen Group executives in Germany have hired U.S. criminal defense lawyers as the Justice Department ramps up meetings with managers to gather evidence that may lead to charges, people familiar with the matter said.

… As dire as that may seem for the VW executives, they do have one annoying ace up their sleeves – as Bloomberg notes, Germany’s constitution doesn’t allow the extradition of its citizens outside the European Union. (Michael Ballaban, December 5, 2016,

Slippery Slope

In August of 2009, after ruptured airbag inflators in Honda vehicles were linked to at least four injuries and a death, the automaker quietly requested a design change and did not notify U.S. regulators…. The previously undisclosed redesign could make Honda and Takata more vulnerable in more than 100 pending federal lawsuits and dozens more state suits. The request shows that Honda understood the safety risks posed by the inflators long before it started expanding recalls by the millions in 2014, the attorneys and law professors said. (Paul Lienert and Jessica Dye, Automotive News, March 24, 2016)

What You Don’t Know Can Hurt You

No wonder car owners in Canada are suffering from “recall fatigue:” From 2000 to 2016 exploding Takata airbags used by 18 automakers that can rupture and spray metal shards at passengers have resulted in eleven deaths in the U.S. (fortunately none reported in Canada). Over 28 million inflators have been recalled in the U.S. and Canada; replacing another 60 million air bags won’t be completed before 2019. Over 30 million GM cars were recalled to replace ignition switches that can shut off the vehicle on the road. Jeeps from 2007 to 2015 can suddenly stall out, lose power steering and brakes, and disable their airbags. All these formerly hidden dangers made 2014 to 2016 a record period for safety-related recalls, not due so much to assembly line mistakes, but as a consequence of factory cost-cutting run wild and widespread remediation to correct corporate cover-ups. Furthermore, 20% of the affected vehicles may never get fixed because owners can’t be found, or they have lost interest.
GM’s recall could have happened a lot sooner if the company had replaced its ignition switches about ten years ago when first alerted to the defect. The payout would have been $37.7 million, according to confidential General Motors documents released by the U.S. Congress. The cheaper $14.2 million repair that GM authorized saved the company $23.5 million – a savings that has ballooned into a cost of almost $5 billion.
Automakers will sometimes continue manufacturing a vehicle that is potentially defective because it costs less to stonewall complaints and pay off victims than to make a safer vehicle. Consumer advocates learned this lesson many years ago after reading the court transcripts in Grimshaw v. Ford (fire-prone Pintos) from 1981. Reporter Anthony Prince wrote the following assessment of Ford’s indifference in an article titled “Lessons of the Ford/Firestone Scandal: Profit Motive Turns Consumers into Road Kill,” People’s Tribune (Online Edition), Vol. 26, No. 11, November 2000:

Rejecting safety designs costing between only $1.80 and $15.30 per Pinto, Ford had calculated the damages it would likely pay in wrongful death and injury cases and pocketed the difference. In a cold and calculating “costs/benefits” analysis, Ford projected that the Pinto would probably cause 180 burn deaths, 180 serious burn injuries, [and] 2,100 burned vehicles each year. Also, Ford estimated civil suits of $200,000 per death, $67,000 per injury, [and] $700 per vehicle for a grand total of $49.5 million. The costs for installing safety features would cost approximately $137 million per year. As a result, the Pinto became a moving target, its unguarded fuel tank subject to rupture by exposed differential bolts shoved into it by rear-end collisions at speeds of as little as 21 miles per hour [34 km/h]. Spewing gasoline into the passenger compartment, the car and its passengers became engulfed in a raging inferno.

Carmakers lobby for “zombie” consumer protection laws (neither dead nor alive), set up “secret” warranties, hide behind bankruptcy filings, and slap gag orders on settlements. Often, progress on vehicle emissions and safety is the result of successful lawsuits and government initiative, with Washington and California leading the way, while Transport Canada (vehicle safety), Canada’s Competition Tribunal (misleading advertising), Environment Canada (emissions recalls), and Energy and Natural Resources Canada (fictional fuel economy ratings) exhibit a determined passivity. When it comes to auto regulations, Ottawa often seems more comfortable singing “Kumbaya” with the carmakers than being perceived as a cop on the beat.

SHHHH…More Secret Car Warranties

Automobile manufacturers use secret warranties or “special policies” to compensate car owners for performance-related defects long after the original warranty has expired, sometimes up to ten years. These extensions of the standard warranty are often found in confidential Technical Service Bulletins (TSB) sent to dealers, but seldom seen by car owners.
Part Four has dozens of special policies, warranty extensions and secret warranties that will pay for the repair or replacement of defective parts, including engines, transmissions, catalytic converters, brakes, and computer modules, even if you bought your vehicle used. Look at the following little-known warranty extensions that will pay for large repair bills up to 13 years out.

General Motors

2005-07 SUVs with defective fuel level sensors will have the part replaced for free up to 10 years or 120,000 miles. Previous repair costs will be refunded. Affected models are 2005-06 Chevrolet SSR, Trailblazer EXT, GMC Envoy XL; and the 2005-07 Buick Rainier, Chevrolet Trailblazer, and GMC Envoy. Cite GM Campaign #10054E.


2006-09 Civic engines may have a cracked engine block. This warranty extension will pay for a new engine block. If the engine is “cooked” from overheating, the entire engine will be replaced, gratis.

2006-11 Civics with cracked or chalking paint on the hood, roof, trunk, or front fenders will be repainted at no charge up to seven years. Cite Honda Campaign #12-049. Nissan

2002-05 Altima and Maxima models benefit from a recall that pays for new bushings and seals, plus the complete replacement of the lower suspension assembly, all affected by premature corrosion. There is no mileage limit under Campaign #P5216.

Let’s take a closer look at the car industry and give you the low-down on the many new and used vehicles on the market.

close this panel
Show editions
Contacting facebook
Please wait...