Angela Sterritt: The Legacy of Violence Against Indigenous Women in Canada

Angela Sterritt Art

Credit: Angela Sterritt. "Honour the Dead, Fight for the Living, Honour the Living, Fight for the Dead." 3.5 ft x 4.5 ft. Acrylic on canvas. 

Talking History focuses on a wide range of topics in Canadian history, and it consists of articles by Canada's foremost historians and history experts. Our contributors use the power of narrative to bring the past to life and to show how it is not just relevant, but essential to our understanding of Canada and the world today. "Talking History" is a series made possible through a special funding grant from the Department of Canadian Heritage.

Angela Sterritt is an award-winning journalist, artist, and filmmaker from the Gitxsan Nation. She's been a working journalist for over 15 years and is currently a CBC reporter in television, radio and online. She was recently awarded a prestigious William Southam Journalism Fellowship—the first Indigenous person of Canada to receive the award since its inception in 1962.

*****

Stepping onto the sandy shores of the Red River, a Winnipeg man and his son noticed a bundle floating on the sun-tinged water. It was later found to be the lifeless body of a petite 15-year-old Anishnaabe girl, wrapped in a bag.

The news of Tina Fontaine’s murder in the summer of 2014 flooded the headlines as thousands of shocked Canadians took to the streets to demand action.  At a press conference, a Winnipeg police sergeant said, “Society should be horrified by the violent death of a child.” Members of Parliament stood up in the House of Commons stressing the need to have a national conversation about violence against Indigenous women. There was no question: justice was needed for a girl who had perished before her life even seemed to begin.

But for many Indigenous people, as troubling as the vicious slaying was, the news was all too familiar. It was just one more tragedy among close to 1200 Indigenous women documented as murdered or missing in Canada—a disturbing pattern spanning decades. 

Helen Betty Osborne is one of those tragic stories, one of the most high profile cases in Canada and one of only a handful of murdered or missing Indigenous women that many Canadians know by name.

Betty, as friends and family called her, was walking home from a dance in The Pas, Manitoba, on the night of November 13th, 1971, when she was approached by four young white men who asked her to “party.” When she refused one of the men jumped out of the car and forced her into the back seat between two men who sexually and physically assaulted her. They drove her out of town to an isolated area where they brutally beat her and stabbed her over fifty times with a screwdriver, finally leaving her for death. 

In search for answers as to why such violence happens, advocates look at the vulnerability of Indigenous women, pointing to age and social and economic marginalization. Sometimes stories illustrate experiences of poverty, abuse, and addictions. However, too often, a girl or a woman’s vulnerability is simply insofar as she is Indigenous.

"Too often, a girl or a woman’s vulnerability is simply insofar as she is Indigenous."

For 19-year-old Osborne, the injustice of her brutal murder didn’t stop the night she died. Her murderers were not brought to justice for 16 years, while rumours tore through the community like wildfire, the killers even bragging about the assault and killing. During the trial, both journalists and the Crown spoke to townspeople who claimed the circumstances of Osborne’s death had been no secret.

The 1988 Aboriginal Justice Inquiry into the murder of Helen Betty Osborne suggested that “because Osborne was an Aboriginal person, the townspeople considered the murder unimportant. Allegations of racism, neglect, and indifference, on the part of the citizens of the town, the police and of the Attorney General’s department, were made.”

Navigating this dark sea of tragedy for many Indigenous people has been a lonely road and an uphill battle—one marked by several decades of public apathy. The 2014 RCMP report into Missing and Murdered Indigenous women sparked a public outcry, but families of missing and murdered women have been voicing these concerns for over 50 years.

"The 2014 RCMP report into Missing and Murdered Indigenous women sparked a public outcry, but families of missing and murdered women have been voicing these concerns for over 50 years."

Helen Betty Osborne’s story is not just about the murder of an Indigenous woman  surrounded by a code of silence. It is about a national culture in Canada that is marred with racism—including regular segregation, harassment, assault, and yes, murder. This racism is rooted in Canadian relations with Indigenous people that began in the early nation-building years.

The history of violence against Indigenous women can be traced to colonization, systemic racism, denial of culture, language and traditions, and laws designed to destroy identity, dislocate, and fragment families. Canadian history books and shared experiences reveal that part of the colonial project was to dehumanize Indigenous women to justify any concurrent violations and abuses—to ultimately gain access to and power over Indigenous land.

Residential school, legislation in the Indian Act, and partnerships created between the federal government and the Indian brotherhood laid the early foundations of denigrating Indigenous women. In order to access land and power in Indigenous country, the forefathers of Canada needed to eliminate those responsible to it. For most that meant the backbones of Indigenous communities—the women. This rationale of removal is documented in Canadian academic and news archives.

This history has shaped our current reality, a legacy of gendered racism reinforcing the long silence surrounding the violence experienced by First Nations, Inuit, and Métis women. It is important for people to recognize the intricate history that lies behind these women’s stories and those of their families, and to understand how this history continues to play out and shape our behaviors in Canada still.

Bravery to Truth

Credit: Angela Sterritt. "Bravery to Truth." With permission from Rinelle Harper and her mother. Graphic design.

It would be unfair to say that nothing has changed since the 1970s. Awareness has grown of violence against Indigenous women, Indigenous populations are rising and some of our people are now in powerful roles in Canada—university professors, journalists, lawyers, doctors, and government workers—creating dialogue and impact on many fronts. Non-Indigenous people more and more have a thirst to learn not just about the stories of colonial devastation, but to listen to Indigenous narratives that illustrate equality, empowerment, truth, and justice.

"It would be disingenuous to say that violence against Indigenous women has changed to a degree that things are getting better."

But it would be disingenuous to say that violence against Indigenous women has changed to a degree that things are getting better. Tina Fontaine’s aunt recently received hate mail explicating their family members “... are nothing but a bunch of drunken Indians."  Online comments on news stories show that some people think the situation of missing and murdered Indigenous women is a result of girls and women thrusting themselves into unsafe situations. The numbers of those missing and murdered have not slowed down, and there has been no uptick in charges against those responsible for violence against Indigenous women.

The rampant violence against Indigenous women in this country has spurred a Missing Women’s Commission of Inquiry; a report by the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR), affiliated with the Organization of American States: a United Nations Special Rapporteur envoy and report; an Amnesty International investigation; an Aboriginal Justice Inquiry; countless international and national economic, social and Indigenous forums; and now a national federal roundtable with public debates surrounding the need for a national inquiry.

But has all this made a difference? This issue has only recently reached national headlines, with the public becoming aware of the problem and beginning to seek answers as to what has gone so wrong. Though surely one would think that, as families, advocates, and journalists have been pushing the relevance of this story for decades, some answers would come to light long ago. So what has changed about the conversation now? 

Perhaps it has to do with timing, human growth and development, and an ability to finally see how history unfolds and overflows into the present when it is not recognized as existing at all.  As my mother once said, “When history is swept under the carpet, it does not go away, it simply grows and transforms into something bigger and often worse.”

Conceivably Canada as a nation has reached the maturity level to finally tackle the hard and demanding issues, the problems that have no one single simple conclusion or solution.

And maybe, if I push myself to hope beyond, it has to do with our country building awareness based on compassion and love, and an altruistic desire to create a better nation of Indigenous and non-Indigenous people working together towards common goals of safety, mutual understanding and equality.

Regardless, I ask you, the reader, to honor the lives of these women— not just Tina, or Betty, but the 1200-plus daughters, nieces, mothers, grandmothers, sisters, granddaughters and friends, many of whom are named below—by asking yourself why their lives were taken prematurely and why these people's lives and their memories have not been respected in the way they ought to have been. Most important, I ask you to think of how you can be a part of changing this horrific legacy of violence.

"I ask you to think of how you can be a part of changing this horrific legacy of violence."

**

The following lists the names of missing and murdered Indigenous women and girls in Canada as of March 1, 2015. It was compiled by Maryanne Pearce, a federal public servant who created a database on missing and murdered women as part of her LL.D. thesis for the University of Ottawa's law school, and appears here with her permission. Pearce's list was developed by cross-referencing newspaper articles, police websites and reports, court documents and other public sources. Her 2013 dissertation is called "An Awkward Silence: Missing and Murdered Vulnerable Women and the Canadian Justice System." Pearce's work was recognized in the 2014 RCMP’s report on missing and murdered Indigenous women. 

The remaining names (roughly 200) that make up the RCMP’s number 1187 missing and murdered Indigenous women are difficult to locate without police Canadian Police Information Center (CPIC) information.

Pearce’s list includes only cases of missing or murdered Indigenous women that police are investigating as suspicious. Cases deemed non-foul play have been removed. 

1.     Yvonne Abigosis   1984 BC
2.     Sereena Abotsway 29 2001 BC
3.     Sally Abou   1992 BC
4.     Sharon Abraham   2000 BC
5.     Christine Ackabee 43 2006 AB
6.      Chelsey Acorn 14 2005 BC
7.      Rachel Adams 23 2004 BC
8.      Jackie Adams 30 1996 ON
9.      Hilda Agawa 63 2009 ON
10.     Bernadette Ahenakew 22 1989 AB
11.     Laura Ahenakew 22 1990 SK
12.     Inusiq Akavak 39 2000 NU
13.     Nina Akbarian 3 1996 ON
14.     Debrah Akhiatak   1996 NU
15.     Teresa Aklunark 64 2009 NU
16.     Shannon Alexander 17 2008 QC
17.     Annette Allan   2001 BC
18.     Elaine Alook 35 2004 AB
19.     Maria Amarualik 57 2010 NU
20.     Adrienne Amikons 14 1997 ON
21.     Martha Ammaq 23 1988 NU
22.     Shelley Anderson 30 2005 SK
23.     Leah Anderson 15 2013 MB
24.     Samantha Anderson 23 2012 MB
25.     Shelley Anderson 51 2009 ON
26.     Joni Andre 22 2004 NWT
27.     Patricia Andrew   1985 BC
28.     Abigail Andrews 28 2010 BC
29.     Edith Angalik 25 2014 NU
30.     Ida Angotigirk 41 2013 QC
31.     Lisa Anstey 21 1997 ON
32.     Cassandra Antone 20 1997 BC
33.     Molly Apsassin 58 1994 BC
34.     Wendy Arnault 23 2003 SK
35.     Lorraine Arrance 40 2003 BC
36.     Sharon Arrance     BC
37.     Elena Assam-Thunderbird  17 2002  ON
38.     Elisapi Assapa 31 2003 QC
39.     Susan Assin   1974 ON
40.     Venecia  Audy 3 2006 MB
41.     Cynthia Audy 27 2004 MB
42.     Laverna Avigan     BC
43.     Allison Ayalik 7 1998 NU
44.     Michelle Ayalik 13 1998 NU
45.     Linda Backfat 40 2006 AB
46.     Shelly Bacsu 16 1983 AB
47.     Cynthia Badarm 37 2014 AB
48.     Desiree Badger 15 2014 AB
49.     Marilyn Badger 52 2006 AB
50.     Celine Bahsler   1993 SK
51.     Chystal Baker 35 2002 BC
52.     Karen Baker   1986 BC
53.     Louise Baker 22 2010 MB
54.     Sylvia Ballantyne 40 2003 AB
55.     Alice Ballantyne 46 2005 SK
56.     Jean Ballantyne 63 2010 SK
57.     Jenilee Ballantyne 22 2013 MB
58.     Emily Ballantyne 24 1991 MB
59.     Heather Ballantyne 40 2013 SK
60.     Marie Banks 18 1983 MB
61.     Lora Banman 23 1999 BC
62.     Gloria Baptiste     BC
63.      Jordena Baptiste 22 2003 AB
64.      Dawns Baptiste 31 2015 AB
65.      Marlene Barbeau 47 2007 QC
66.      Amanda Bartlett 17 1996 MB
67.      Immaculate Basil 26 2013 BC
68.      Janet Basil 33   BC
69.      Chrystal Beairsto 23 2003 PEI
70.      Lisa Bear 20 2001 BC
71.      Richelle Bear 23 2013 SK
72.      Lori Bearbull 37 2014 MB
73.      Geraldine Beardy 29 2009 MB
74.      Annette Beardy-Spence   2013 MB
75.      Victoria Beatty   1954 ON
76.       Nadine Beaulieu 1 1996 MB
77.       Rose Mary Beaver 32 1994 AB
78.       Dillon Belanger 4 2010 MB
79.       Samantha Belcourt 12 2004 AB
80.       Patricia Belcourt 18 2001 AB
81.       Ginger Bellerose 26 2001 AB
82.       Deanna Bellerose   2002 AB
83.       Leanne Benwell 27 2007 AB
84.       Edna Bernard 28 2002 AB
85.       Jane Bernard   1966 ON
86.       Noa Bernard 72 2007 NS
87.       Jeaniel Berreault 22 2010 BC
88 Bertrand   2010  
89.       Danita Bigeagle 22 2007 SK
90.       Kyra Bighetty 0 2007 MB
91.       Skye Bighetty 8 2013 MB
92.       Christine Billy     BC
93.       Shawna Bird 16 2001 AB
94.       Angel Bird 23 2010 AB
95.       Farro Bird 19 2005 SK
96.       Mary Ann Birmingham 16 1986 NU
97.       Vickie Black   1993 BC
98.       Cheryl Black 46 2004 AB
99.       Alice Black 31 2008 NWT
100.      Margaret Blackbird 21 1951 SK
101.      Gloria Blackplume   1991 AB
102.      Lorna Blacksmith 18 2012 MB
103.      Lizzie Blacksmith 15 1973 QC
104.      Cindy Blazek 23 1986 SK
105.      Jacqueline Bob 41 2004 BC
106.      Celestine Bob   1962 BC
107.      Nancy Bob   1990 BC
108.      Tricia  Boisvert 36 2014 QC
109.      Lisa Marie Bone-Spence 17 2009 MB
110.      Hilary Bonnell 16 2009 NB
111.      Liz Bonney   1992 ON
112.      Francis Boon 69 2012 MB
113.      Dahleen Bosse   2004 SK
114.      Barbara Bostrom 26 1986 ON
115.      Bernice Bottle 36 1988 ON
116.      Misty Boudreau 13 1991 BC
117.      David Boulanger 28 2004 MB
118.      Denise Bourdeau 39 2006 ON
119.      Rebecca Boutilier 20 1993 AB
120.      Jessica Boysis 20 2014 AB
121.      Eileen Bradburn 50 2002 MB
122.      Deena Braem 17 1999 BC
123.      Pauline Brazeau 16 1976 AB
124.      Bella Brian 15 1973 QC
125.      Tanya Brooks 38 2009 NS
126.      Delores Brower   2004 AB
127.      Marlissa Brown 15 2007 BC
128.      Melanie Brown 31 2004 BC
129.      Ada Brown 39 2001 BC
130.      Lara Brown 26 1998 AB
131.      Cecil Brown   1984 ON
132.      Christine Browne 16 1991 BC
133.      Annette Bruce      
134.      Leona Brule   1989 NWT
135.      Jacqueline Bruno 18 2010 AB
136.      Fonessa Bruyere 17 2007 MB
137.      Jodi Bryant 21 2010 SK
138.      Stephanie Buboire 30 2004 MB
139.      Vanessa Buckner 27 1987 BC
140.      Marlene Buffalo-Hudson 23   BC
141.      Carol Buggins 48 2012 NWT
142.      Cindy Burk 21 1990 BC
143.      Maggie Burke   2004 AB
144.      Monica Burns 28 2015 SK
145.      Caroline Burns 52 1973 SK
146.      Chantelle Bushie 16 2007 AB
147.      N. C. 13 2005 AB
148.      Cahoose     BC
149.      Sandy Calahasen   1993 Y.K.
150.      Belinda Cameron 46 2005 BC
151.      Robin Cameron 29 2006 SK
152.      Constance Cameron 20 1984 MB
153.      Evaline Cameron 19 1995 ON
154.      Roxanne Campbell 38 2002 BC
155.      Joan Campbell 36 2003 SK
156.      Bernadette  Campo   BC  
157.      Loretta Capot-Blanc 31 1997 BC
158.      Michela Cardinal 12 2001 BC
159.      Carol Cardinal     BC
160.      Gail Cardinal 21 1983 AB
161.      Jessica Cardinal 24 1997 AB
162.      Juanita Cardinal 27 2006 AB
163.      Joyce Cardinal 35 1993 AB
164.      Jeanette Cardinal 40 2011 AB
165.      Valerie Cardinal 40 2004 AB
166.      Monica Cardinal 46 1993 AB
167.      Marie Cardinal   1953 NWT
168.      Dawn Carisse 43 2001 ON
169.      Angel Carlick 19 2007 Y.K.
170.      Marie Carlson-Hill 31 2012 AB
171.      Loran Carpenter     BC
172.      Monica Carpenter 16 2013 MB
173.      Leone Carpenter   1989 ON
174.      Patricia Carpenter 14 1993 ON
175.      Terri Carson 15 1981 BC
176.      Kim Casimer 21 1989 BC
177.      Kristen Catcheway 2 1993 MB
178.      Jennifer Catcheway 18 2008 MB
179.      Chantelle Cathcart 23 2011 SK
180.      Charlene Catholique 15 1990 NWT
181.      Annie Cedar     BC
182.      Melilssa Chaboyer 35 2005 MB
183.      Marcia Charette   1987 AB
184.      Mathilda Charles     BC
185.      Jacqueline Charles 31 2004 SK
186.      Sherry Charlie 1 2002 BC
187.      Chassidy Charlie 17 2011 BC
188.      Donna Charlie 22 1990 BC
189.      Roxanne Charlie 26 2009 BC
190.      Mary Ann Charlie     BC
191.      Louise Chartrand 17 1981 BC
192.      Connie Chartrand   1981 BC
193.      Donna Chartrand   1998 BC
194.      Tara Chartrand 30 2012 SK
195.      Judy Chescue 22 1988 AB
196.      Jeanette Chief 48 2007 SK
197.      Heather Chinnock   2001 BC
198.      Lana Chipesia 23 2011 BC
199.      Tamara Chipman 22 2005 BC
200.      Michelle Choiniere 24 2005 BC
201.      Christina Christison 27 2002 BC
202.      Colette Cimon 39 1993 NB
203.      Bethany Clement 15 2002 BC
204.      Shirley Cletheroe 45 2006 BC
205.      Holly Cochrane     BC
206.      Justine Cochrane 15 2011 AB
207.      Leigh Cochrane    2003 MB
208.      Sharla Collier 20 2002 AB
209.      Linda Condo   1988 QC
210.      Carolyn Connolly 54 2008 ON
211.      Amanda Cook 14 1996 MB
212.      Hazel Coombs 0 2001 AB
213.      Audrey Cooper 35 2006 MB
214.      Mary Corbiere 76 2010 AB
215.      Charmaine Corrigal 32 2014 NWT
216.      Elise Cote 48 2012 SK
217.      Ada Court 13 1981 BC
218.      Alicia  Courtoreille-Brignall  2007 BC  
219.      Pauline Crane 15 2015 MB
220.      Jaylene Crane 19 2006 MB
221.      Jacqueline Crazybull 44 2007 AB
222.      Yvonne Crazybull   1991 AB
223.      Creighton   1960 AB
224.      Dawn Crey 43 2000 BC
225.      Faith Crey     AB
226.      Laura Cross   2001 NS
227.      Unice Crow 19 2013 MB
228.      Daisy Curley 33 2008 NU
229.      Tanya Curry   1999 BC
230.      Beverly Custer 34 2014 MB
231.      Jennifer Cusworth 19 1993 BC
232.      Sonya Cywink 31 1994 ON
233.      Corrine Dagnault     BC
234.      Colleen Daignault 13 1981 BC
235.      Catherine Daignault 40 1989 BC
236.      Antoinette Daniels 26 2004 SK
237.      Terrie Dauphinais 24 2002 AB
238.      Crysta David 20 1992 BC
239.      Carol Davie     BC
240.      Carol Davis 29 1987 BC
241.      Maryann Davis 25 2005 ON
242.      Deanna Daw   2000 ON
243.      Rose Decoteau 43 2005 AB
244.      Aliyah Degrasse 2 2011 NU
245.      Alexandra Degrasse 7 2011 NU
246.      Carol Deiter 32   BC
247.      Shelly Dene 26 2013 AB
248.      Lana Derrick 19 1995 BC
249.      Charmaine Desa 20 1990 AB
250.      Beverley Desjarlais     BC
251.      Judy Desjarlais 29 1997 AB
252.      Janice Desjarlais 35 2010 AB
253.      Naomi Desjarlais 21 1987 SK
254.      Cassandra Desjarlais 24 2013 SK
255.      Marie Desjarlais   1986 SK
256.      Yvonne Desjarlais 63 2012 NWT
257.      Patsy  Desmarais 4 2004 MB
258.      Karla Desrosiers 45 2007 ON
259.      Shelley Devoe 44 2006 BC
260.      Sarah deVries 29 1998 BC
261.      Stacey Diabo 18 2003 ON
262.      Judy Dick 14 1975 BC
263.      Mary Dick 40 2002 BC
264.      Judy Dickie 38 2004 AB
265.      Diane Dobson 36 1995 ON
266.      April Dobson 40 2005 ON
267.      Jane Doe 005 20-24   BC
268.      Jane Doe 010 24-25   AB
269.      Jane Doe 015   1987 ON
270.      Person Doe 016 0 1987 SK
271.      Jane Doe 019 70 1991 NFLD
272.      Jane Doe 020 50-65   BC
273.      Jane Doe 022 33   BC
274.      Jane Doe 033 35-40   SK
275.      Jane Doe 046 35-50   ON
276.      Jane Doe 048 30-50   ON
277.      Jane Doe 050 30-60   AB
278.      Jane Doe 052 22 2006 SK
279.      Jane Doe 055 34-62   AB
280.      Jane Doe 062 4 2009 AB
281.      Jane Doe 064 16 2010 ON
282.      Jane Doe 065 16 2013 BC
283.      Jane Doe 072 35-50   MB
284.      Jane Doe 074 23 2013 NU
285.      Jane Doe 075 15 2013 QC
286.      Jane Doe 080   2014 AB
287.      Jane Doe 085   2014 NU
288.      Jane Doe 091 1 2014 MB
289.      Elizabeth Dorion 44 1999 MB
290.      Suzanne Dube 22 1998 NS
291.      Cheryl Duck 15 1987 MB
292.      Nancy Dumas 75 1987 MB
293.      Velma Duncan 18 1972 BC
294.      Gloria Duneult     BC
295.      Jackaleen Dyck 23 1980 MB
296.      Marguerite  Dyson 51 1996 NFLD
297.      Jean Eagle 28 1968 QC
298.      Roseanne Eaglestick 23 2014 MB
299.      Nora Eaglestick   1977 MB
300.      Glennis Edwards 48 2006 BC
301.      Mupaloo Eegeesiak 0 1993 NU
302.      Roberta Elders   2001 BC
303.      Chrystal Elk 37 2011 MB
304.      Adrienne Ermine 37 2010 SK
305.      Mary Evans-Harlick 24 2002 NFLD
306.      Karen Ewanciw 11 1975 AB
307.      Darelle Exner 14 1996 SK
308.      Barbara Eyapaise 24 2002 AB
309.      Oolayou Eyesiak 51 1986 NU
310.      Patricia Favel 18 1984 SK
311.      Roberta Ferguson 19 1988 BC
312.      Jerry Ferguson     BC
313.      Chantel Ferguson      
314.      Vikki Ferrando 30 1999 BC
315.      Brenda  Fidler   1986 BC
316.      Sandra Flamond     BC
317.      Roxanne Fleming 18 1982 BC
318.      Amanda Flett     BC
319.      Mildred Flett 51 2010 MB
320.      Leticia Fleury 25 2011 SK
321.      Georgette Flint   1988 AB
322.      Elaine Flowers 21 1981 SK
323.      Elaine Flowers 20 1985 NFLD
324.      Tina Fontaine 15 2014 MB
325.      Sheila Fontaine 42 2011 MB
326.      Summer Fowler 16 2012 BC
327.      Sharon Fox 43 2010 AB
328.      Scentri Fox 3 1995 SK
329.      Rena Fox 38 2003 ON
330.      Lisa Francis 41 2009 BC
331.      Cassandra Francis 21   AB
332.      Lorilee Francis   2007 AB
333.      Loretta Frank 19 1989 Y.K.
334.      Maryse Fréchette 17 2007 QC
335.      Leanne Freeman 23 2011 ON
336.      Helen Frost 17 1970 BC
337.      Roswitha Fuchsbichler 15 1980-1982 BC
338.      Jennifer Furminger 28 1999 BC
339.      Kimberley Gallup   1990 BC
340.      Jewel Gambler 28 1992 SK
341.      Arabella Garson  34 2007 MB
342.      Martha Garvin      
343.      Sylvia Gaudet 52 2005 ON
344.      Sandra Gaudet 14 1990 QC
345.      Lisa Gavin 21 1988 BC
346.      Martha Gavin     BC
347.      Melanie Geddes 24 2005 SK
348.      Corona Genaille 0 2007 SK
349.      Ruby Genaille 45 2004 MB
350.      Tashina General 21 2008 ON
351.      Christa George 27 2003 BC
352.      Norma George 30 1992 BC
353.      Brenda George     BC
354.      Helena George     BC
355.      Marina George     BC
356.      Mary George   2005 BC
357.      Pamela George 28 1995 SK
358.      Graffie George   1967 Y.K.
359.      Alisha Germaine   1994 BC
360.      Joanne Ghostkeeper 24 1996 AB
361.      Helen Gillings 19 1995 ON
362.      Michelle Ginnish 22 2004 NB
363.      Cindy Gladue 36 2011 AB
364.      Nancy Gladue   1981 AB
365.      Angelica Godin 15 2012 MB
366.      June Goforth 4 2012 SK
367.      Kelly Goforth 21 2013 SK
368.      Mary Goodfellow 67 1993 SK
369.      Freda Goodrunning 35 2014 AB
370.      Sonya Goodstriker 31 2005 AB
371.      Kari Gordon   1997 BC
372.      Clara Gordon 16 1958 ON
373.      Sharon Gosselin 31 1987 AB
374.      Marie Goudreau 17 1976 AB
375.      Frances Grant 33 1989 BC
376.      Alexis Grant 1 2005 AB
377.      Linda Green 18 1975 MB
378.      Andrea Grey   1999 AB
379.      Amber Guiboche 20 2010 MB
380.      Sylvia Guiboche 20 2003 MB
381.      Rene Gunning   2005 AB
382.      Rebecca Guno 23 1983 BC
383.      Michele Gurney 29 1998 BC
384.      Tracy Guthrie 39 2006 BC
385.      Margaret Guylee   1965 ON
386.      Janice Hackh   1979 BC
387.      Michelle Hadwen 37 2009 AB
388.      Chantelle  Halcro 25 2012 MB
389.      Elizabeth Halkett 19 2003 SK
390.      Savannah Hall 3 2001 BC
391.      Heather Hamill 31 2003 BC
392.      Dianna Hamm 43 1991 MB
393.      Nicolle Hands 32 2003 MB
394.      Ruby Hardy 32 1998 BC
395.      Doreen Hardy 18 1966 ON
396.      Maureen Harper 54 2011 MB
397.      Esther Harper 55 2008 MB
398.      Vera Harry   1986 BC
399.      Veronica Harry     BC
400.      Violet Heathen   2009 SK
401.      Candace Henderson   1999 MB
402.      Levina Henry 19 1967 BC
403.      Janet Henry 37 1997 BC
404.      Wendy Henry 20 2007 MB
405.      Violet Herman 40 2002 BC
406.      Éliane  Hervieux 36 2000 QC
407.      Joyce Hewitt 22 1997 AB
408.      Joanne Hoeppner 28 2008 MB
409.      Susan Holens 15 1989 MB
410.      Angela Holm 16 2009 MB
411.      Deborah Holmes 46 2001 PEI
412.      Pamela Holopainen 22 2003 ON
413.      Tanya Holyk   1996 BC
414.      Anette Holywhiteman   2008 AB
415.      Rita Holy-White-Man   1989 BC
416.      Jeanette Hootsie 19 2005 SK
417.      Tracy Hope     BC
418.      April Hornbrook 24 2011 MB
419.      Victoria Hornbrook 24 1993 MB
420.      Jennifer Horne 20 2007 NS
421.      Priscilla Horse 15 1997 SK
422.      Cherisse Houle 17 2009 MB
423.      Cheryl Humchitt   1993 BC
424.      Sheila Hunt     BC
425.      Monica Ignas 15 1974 BC
426.      Theresa Innes 36 2005 AB
427.      Leanne Irkootee 22 2004 NU
428.      Sherry Irving   1997 BC
429.      Florence Isaac     BC
430.      Miranda Isaac     BC
431.      Roxanne Isadore 23 2007 AB
432.      Monica Jack 12 1978 BC
433.      Doreen Jack 26 1989 BC
434.      Helena Jack 71 2004 BC
435.      Laverne Jack     BC
436.      Bonnie Jack 37 2006 AB
437.      Jane Jack 22 1995 ON
438.      Barbara Jack 14 1972 Y.K.
439.      Sally Jackson     BC
440.      Lynn Jackson 34 2004 AB
441.      Helen Jacobs 73 2006 ON
442.      Yvonne Jacobson 37 2001 AB
443.      Jessica James   2005 BC
444.      Cynthia Jamieson   2002 ON
445.      Annette Janvier 36 2001 AB
446.      Jennifer Janz 16 1991 AB
447.      Kimberly  Jararuse 20 2010 NFLD
448.      Honey Jerry 0 2007 AB
449.      Mary Jimmie   1987 BC
450.      Irene Jimmy   1996 SK
451.      Cheryl Joe 26 1992 BC
452.      Donna Joe 22-32   NB
453.      Virginia Johannsen 55 1994 AB
454.      Kayla John 13 2004 BC
455.      Samantha Johnings 1 1992 ON
456.      Martina Johnnie   1994 BC
457.      Mary Johns   1982 BC
458.      Pauline Johnson 30 1985 BC
459.      Mary Johnson   1980 BC
460.      Sandra Johnson 18 1992 ON
461.      Cheryl Johnson   2001 NS
462.      Tiffany Johnston 21 2010 MB
463.      Courtney Johnstone 26 2014 AB
464.      Tyeshia Jones 18 2011 BC
465.      Lorna Jones      
466.      Nikita Joseph 24 2012 BC
467.      Bonnie Joseph 32 2007 BC
468.      Barbara Joseph 43 2004 BC
469.      Deborah Joseph 48 2012 BC
470.      Nina Joseph   1980-1982 BC
471.      Shelley Joseph 40 2004 ON
472.      S. K. 1 2010 AB
473.      Donna Kabatay 17-19   ON
474.      Kelsey Kahpeechoose 13-19 2013 SK
475.      Tabitha Kalluk   2002 NU
476.      Lori Kasprick 14 1961 AB
477.      Ernestine Kasyon 26 1989 SK
478.      Donna Kasyon   2002 SK
479.      Dorothy Kay   1952 AB
480.      Donna Kayson 20 2002 SK
481.      Mary  Keadjuk 24 1990 NWT
482.      Mary Rose Keajuk     NWT
483.      Barbara Keam 30 1981 AB
484.      Evelyn Kebalo 55 1977 MB
485.      Tamra Keepness 5 2004 SK
486.      Charity Keesic 19 2001 ON
487.      Dawn Keewatin 17 1982 SK
488.      Debbie Kennedy     BC
489.      Minnie Kenoajuak   1996 QC
490.      Charlene Kerr 29 1990 BC
491.      Louise Killiktee 31 2010 NU
492.      Aynsley Kinch 35 2007 MB
493.      Cara King 22 1997 AB
494.      Mary King     ON
495.      Tanya Kirchen 18 2005 MB
496.      Ruby Kirkpatrick 24 1998 BC
497.      Donna Kiss 25 1986 BC
498.      Emiline Kitchener 34 2012 SK
499.      Virginia Kitty 46 2008 ON
500.      Katrina Kiyoshk 17 2005 ON
501.      Krystle Knott 16 2005 AB
502.      Kayla Koks 22 2012 BC
503.      Maricia Koostachin   2005 MB
504.      Sandy Korba 22 2001 BC
505.      Judy Kozma 14 1981 BC
506.      Mary Kreiser 49 1987 AB
507.      Donna Kusugak   2003 NU
508.      Bea Kwaronihawi Barnes 17 2010  QC
509.      Shana Labatte 30 2004 BC
510.      Therese Labbe 47 1989 ON
511.      Leanne Laboucan 22 2007 AB
512.      Francesca Laboucan 23 2003 AB
513.      Shirley Laboucan   2003 AB
514.      Mary Laboucan   2012 NWT
515.      Bella Laboucan-McLean 26 2013  ON
516.      Madelene Lachance 14 2015 SK
517.      Charlotte Lafferty   2014 NWT
518.      Linda Lafferty   2012 NWT
519.      Karen Lafond 21 2003 SK
520.      Elaine LaForme 48 2012 ON
521.      Alinda Lahteenmaki 23 2009 MB
522.      Debbie Lake 29 2002 AB
523.      Marie Laliberte 47 1997 BC
524.      April Lambert 12 1998 AB
525.      Marla Lambert 34 2005 AB
526.      Stephanie Lane   1997 BC
527.      Barbara Laroque 21 1974 BC
528.      Brenda Larose   1990 BC
529.      Danielle LaRue 24 2002 BC
530.      Marie Lasas 19 2006 SK
531.      Jamie Lathlin 16 2010 MB
532.      Madeleine Lavalee 30    
533.      Lavallee 23 1987 SK
534.      Heather Lavallee 37 2013 SK
535.      Rhonda Lavoie 22 1997 MB
536.      Lori Lazore 46 2014 QC
537.      Doreen Leclair 51 2000 MB
538.      Bernadette Leclair 16 1987  ON
539.      Delena Lefthand Dixon 20 2008 AB
540.      Irene LeGrande   1976 AB
541.      Mariella Lennie 17 1991 NWT
542.      Mabel Leo 18 1951 BC
543.      Lisa Leo     BC
544.      Myrna Letandre 36 2006 MB
545.      Geraldine Letendre 30 2002 AB
546.      Susan Levasseur 28 2004 MB
547.      Carmen L'Hirondelle 25 2003 AB
548.      Mary Lidguerre 30 1995 BC
549.      Monika Lillmeier     BC
550.      Hope Lincoln 2 2006 BC
551.      Roberta Lincoln     BC
552.      Agnes Linklater 16 2010 MB
553.      Richard (Kellie) Little 28 1997 BC
554.      Verna Littlechief 34 1978 BC
555.      Christina Littlejohn 27 1968 MB
556.      Brenda Logan 26 1996 BC
557.      Shirley Lonethunder 25 1991 SK
558.      Leslie Longjohn 28 2006 SK
559.      Barbara Loon 34 2009 ON
560.      Malena Loonskin 26 2014 AB
561.      Roxanne Louie 26 2015 BC
562.      Kimber Lucas 25 1994 NS
563.      Marcie Lunt 20-22 1975 BC
564.      Evie Luuku 39 1998 QC
565.      Sylvia Lyall 41 2004 NU
566.      Verna Lyons     BC
567.      Cynthia Maas 35 2010 BC
568.      Jean MacDonald   1999 ON
569.      Mitzi MacDougall 27 1998 ON
570.      Dorinda Machiskinic 38 2013 SK
571.      Marjorie Mack     BC
572.      Pheobe Mack 28 2002 BC
573.      Lois Mackie      
574.      Savannah MacNeill 4 2004 BC
575.      Seraphina MacNeill 4 2004 BC
576.      Rhoda Maghagak 49 2004 NU
577.      Laura Mah 42 1985 BC
578.      Margaret Mahseelah 27 1963 BC
579.      Sandi Malcolm 17 2010 MB
580.      Lisa Malla 23 2008 NU
581.      Heather Mallett 14 2011 MB
582.      Courtney Mamakeesic  20 2013 ON
583.      Mary Mark 41 1975 BC
584.      Vanessa Marlowe   2015 NWT
585.      Tania Marsden 18 1998 MB
586.      Diane Marshall 43 2006 ON
587.      Kristal Martin 32 1999 BC
588.      Delilah Martin     BC
589.      Dorothy Martin   1996 MB
590.      Mary Rose Martin 28 1985 NWT
591.      Alissa Martin-Travers 5 2008 ON
592.      Mavis Mason 29 1990 AB
593.      Sarah Mason 44 1997 ON
594.      Shelly Mathieu-Read 45 2007 ON
595.      Adele Matinat 22 2004 ON
596.      Liana Matthewson 44 2008 ON
597.      Dominique McCann 19 2011  MB
598.      Colleen McDonald 19 1999 MB
599.      Jocelyn McDonald 16 2000 ON
600.      Jamie McGuire 20 1994 MB
601.      Roberta McIvor 32 2011 SK
602.      Monica McKay 18 2000 BC
603.      Chloey McKay 13 2013 MB
604.      Honey McKay 21 2003 MB
605.      Madison McKay 22 2013 MB
606.      Sylvia McKay 35 1991 MB
607.      Belinda McKay 38 2012 MB
608.      Corrine McKeown 52 2000 MB
609.      Leanne McLean 23 2012 MB
610.      Julie McLeod   1993 BC
611.      Jean McMaster   1992 AB
612.      Mary Anne Medwayosh 23 1981 BC
613.      Talia Meguinis 27 2012 AB
614.      Andria Meise   2010 BC
615.      Viola Melvin 65 1977 ON
616.      Rose Merasty     BC
617.      Sharon Merasty 18 1993 SK
618.      Destiny Merasty 26 2015 SK
619.      Cherissa-Lynn  Mercer 14 2001  BC
620.      Janelle Mercredi 20 1986 AB
621.      Paige Merrick-Klyne 1 2005 MB
622.      Angela Meyer 27 2010 NWT
623.      Kathy Michael   2013 NU
624.      Deidre Michelin 21 1993 NFLD
625.      Marie Mike 22 1964 SK
626.      Tatum Miles 19 2012 MB
627.      Henrietta Millek 25 1982 NFLD
628.      Karen Miller 31 2000 BC
629.      Victoria Mink 43 2011 MB
630.      Maggie Mink 26 1987 BC
631.      Eva Mitchell 83 2004 BC
632.      Katy Mitchell 19 1999 MB
633.      Natasha Moar 21 2009 MB
634.      Jean Moccasin   1961 SK
635.      Jean Mocharski 43 1961 MB
636.      Paige Moloi-Straightnose 18 2010  MB
637.      Corrina Monkman 11 2014 MB
638.      Natasha Montgomery 23 2010 BC
639.      Myrna Montgrand 14 1979 SK
640.      Gloria Moody   1969 BC
641.      Mary Moose   1958 MB
642.      Lisa Moosomin     BC
643.      Corrine Moosomin 25 1986 SK
644.      Gloria Morden 34 1996 ON
645.      Brenda Moreside   2005 AB
646.      Savanah Morin 20 2012 AB
647.      Marlene Morowski 35   AB
648.      Kelly Morriseau 27 2006 QC
649.      Glenda Morriseau 19 1991 MB
650.      Gale Morrison 29 1993 BC
651.      Tiffany Morrison   2006 QC
652.      Shannon Morrissette 5 1992 AB
653.      Mae Morton 17 1973 ON
654.      Alacie Moses 20 2004 QC
655.      Maureen Mosie 33 1981 BC
656.      Samantha Muldoe 6 1988 BC
657.      Audrianna Munroe 22 2007 BC
658.      Marilyn Munroe 14 2009 MB
659.      Jacqueline Murdock 28 1997 BC
660.      Teresa Murdock 23 1990 MB
661.      Irma Murdock 38 2000 MB
662.      Jackie Myerion 25 2004 BC
663.      Jean Myra 31 1990 NS
664.      Jennifer Naglingniq 13 2002 NU
665.      Jarita Naistus 20 2005 AB
666.      Pamela Napoleon 42 2014 BC
667.      Shelley Napope 16 1992 SK
668.      Victoria Nashacappo   2002 SK
669.      Susan Natar 29 2003 NU
670.      Minnie Natchequan 37 2008 QC
671.      Maggie Natomagan 74 1976 SK
672.      Cheryl Nayneecassum 22 2003 SK
673.      Debbie Neaslose     BC
674.      Heather Nelson 19 1982 BC
675.      Tanya Nepinak 31 2011 MB
676.      Alice Netemegesic   1970s ON
677.      Melissa Nicholson 17 1991 BC
678.      Delphine Nikal 15 1990 BC
679.      Cecilia Nikal 18 1989 BC
680.      Mary Norn 10 1951 NWT
681.      Dorothy Norn   1951 NWT
682.      Jessica Noskey 25 2001 AB
683.      Madeline Noskey     AB
684.      Noskiye 2 2013 AB
685.      Alacie Nowrakudluk 35 1994 QC
686.      Kiona Oakes 1 2007 SK
687.      Breanne Oberman 16 2010 MB
688.      Maisy Odjick 16 2008 QC
689.      Roberta Okeymow 24 1998 AB
690.      Crystal Okimaw 24 2006 BC
691.      Desiree Oldwoman 21 2011 AB
692.      Samara Olsen 0 2004 YK
693.      Olivia Olson 4 1979 BC
694.      Cherish Oppenheim 16 2001 BC
695.      Charlene Orshalak 17 1987 MB
696.      Claudette Osborne 21 2008 MB
697.      Helen Osborne   1971 MB
698.      Emily Osmond 78 2007 SK
699.      Betsy Owens 15 1988 MB
700.      Vivian Paddy 33 2001 AB
701.      Holly Painter 18 1995 ON
702.      Viola Panacheese 42 1991 ON
703.      Desery Panaktak 19 2011 NU
704.      Charlene Panamick 36   ON
705.      Amelia Papastesis 26 2006 SK
706.      Georgina Papin   1999 BC
707.      Joyce Paquette     BC
708.      Tricia Paquette 8 1978 ON
709.      Fabian (Faye) Paquette 42 2002 BC
710.      Micheline Pare   1970 BC
711.      Stephanie Pare 32 2006 ON
712.      Nicole Parisien 33 2007 BC
713.      Edwina Park 42 2006 SK
714.      Katrina Parkinson 19 2005 SK
715.      Carol Pascal 24 1992 MB
716.      Precious Pascal   2004 MB
717.      Crystal Paskemin 21 2000 SK
718.      Barbara Paul   1981 BC
719.      Maxine Paul   1981 BC
720.      Samantha Paul 26 2013 AB
721.      Shawna Paul 34 2015 AB
722.      Sherry Paul   1993 MB
723.      Emma Paul   1991 NS
724.      Cindy Paulson 32 2001 AB
725.      Peggy Pavel     BC
726.      Cecilia Payash 47 1957 ON
727.      Valerie Paypompee 36 2009 MB
728.      Rhonda Pedersen 2 1969 SK
729.      Grace Pedersen 8 1969 SK
730.      Bernadette Pedersen 30 1969  SK
731.      Janet Pelletier     BC
732.      Deborah Pelletier 15 2015 SK
733.      Heather Pelletier 30 1988 ON
734.      Patricia Pendleton 29 1992 BC
735.      Krista Penunsi 15 2014 SK
736.      Mary Periard 70 2005 AB
737.      Margaret Perrault 32 1988 ON
738.      Angeline Pete 28 2011 BC
739.      Thelma Pete 43 2004 BC
740.      Jennifer Pete     BC
741.      Anne Peters 22 2008 BC
742.      Rose Peters 28 1988 BC
743.      Bonnie Peters     BC
744.      Maxine Peters 34 2004 ON
745.      Pearl Peterson 9 1967 SK
746.      Dorothy Peterson 11 1967 SK
747.      Mary Peterson 13 1967 SK
748.      Jean Peterson 17 1967 SK
749.      Evelyn Peterson 42 1967 SK
750.      Spring Phillips 26 2009 ON
751.      Laura Pilon 22 1992 ON
752.      Tanya Pinette 15 2000 QC
753.      Jenny Pingo 33 2011 NWT
754.      Tammy Pipe 24 1995 BC
755.      Marjorie Pironen     BC
756.      Monique Pitre 30 2003 AB
757.      Denise Pompana 31 1988 MB
758.      Wendy Poole 26 1989 BC
759.      Angela Poorman 29 2014 MB
760.      Dorette  Potts   2012 AB
761.      Amber Potts Jaffary 16 1988 ON
762.      Jeanie  Poucachie 20 2003 QC
763.      Terrilynne Poulette 17 2005 NS
764.      Denise Providence 26 2006 AB
765.      Leah Qavavauq   2005 QC
766.      Bernadine Quewezance 36 2012 SK
767.      Karen Quill 1 1997 SK
768.      Judy Quill 35 2009 ON
769.      Patricia Quinn 33 2008 BC
770.      Rachel Quinney 19 2004 AB
771.      Isabella Rain-Ayala 2 2005 BC
772.      Sandra Ramsay 41 2010 SK
773.      Wendy Ratté 44 1997 BC
774.      Diana Rattlesnake 48 2004 SK
775.      Bernice Redhead 1 1968 MB
776.      Jaylene Redhead 1 2009 MB
777.      Lorna Redhead 42 2009 MB
778.      Amber Redman 19 2005 SK
779.      Jessica Redman 27 2012 SK
780.      Kelly Reilly 24 2001 AB
781.      Susan Reinhardt 40 2006 SK
782.      Michelle Remi   2003 BC
783.      April Reoch   2000 BC
784.      Bernice Rich 21 2013 NFLD
785.      Cherie Richard 20 2012 MB
786.      Marena Riding-at-the-Door   BC  
787.      Darlinda Ritchey   1986 BC
788.      Belinda Ritchie      
789.      Lorraine Rivers 18 1966 ON
790.      Delores Rivet     BC
791.      Carol Riviere   2006 AB
792.      Nya Robailard      
793.      Jodi Roberts 24 2013 SK
794.      Michelle Robichaud 17 2000 ON
795.      Marie Roper 17 1967 BC
796.      Shirley Rosette 44 2006 BC
797.      Naomi Ross 16 2010 MB
798.      Tasha Rossette 21 2005 BC
799.      Mertyl Roy     BC
800.      Rhonda Running Bird 25 1995 AB
801.      Irene Ruth 26 1963 BC
802.      Roberta Saddleback 20s   BC
803.      Liz Sakakeesic   1994 ON
804.      Gillian Salopree 28 2010 AB
805.      Virginia Sampare 18 1974 BC
806.      Katelynn Sampson 7 2008 ON
807.      Cynthia Sanderson 24 2002 SK
808.      Simone Sanderson 23 2012 MB
809.      Aielah Saric-Auger 14 2006 BC
810.      Janice Saul     BC
811.      Crystal Saunders 24 2007 MB
812.      Loretta Saunders 26 2014 NS
813.      Sophia Schmidt 0 1996 MB
814.      Laurie Scholtz     BC
815.      Linda Scott 29 2000 AB
816.      Cindy Scow 28 2012 BC
817.      Elsie Sebastian 40 1992 BC
818.      Joyce  Semmler   1985 NWT
819.      Mary Jane Serloin 35 1981 AB
820.      Geraldine Settee 11 1970 MB
821.      Lorena Severight   1996 SK
822.      Margaret Sewap 33 2011 SK
823.      Edna Shade   1987 BC
824.      Barbara Shapwaykeesic 29 1989 ON
825.      Rowena Sharpe 38 2012 NB
826.      Lisa Sheepskin 18 2000 SK
827.      Rachel Shepherd 46 2013 SK
828.      Natalia Shingoose 2 2012 AB
829.      Colleen Shook 24 1975 BC
830.      Shore   1996 SK
831.      Dorcas Shorson   2003 BC
832.      Ramona Shuler   2003 BC
833.      Therena Silva   2002 MB
834.      Cheryl Sim 53 2010 BC
835.      Verna Simard 50 2011 BC
836.      Amanda Simpson 4 1999 BC
837.      Pheonix Sinclair 5 2005 MB
838.      Carolyn Sinclair 25 2011 MB
839.      Lorraine Sinclair 37 1997 MB
840.      Mary Sinclair 45 1999 MB
841.      Beatrice Sinclair 65 1974 MB
842.      Sarah Skunk 43 1995 ON
843.      Naiomi Skye 25 1997 BC
844.      Carla Slots 29 2000 BC
845.      Cindy-Lou Smaaslet 21 1987 ON
846.      Darlene Small-Legs     BC
847.      Cheri Smith 18 1990 BC
848.      Carla Smith 27 2011 BC
849.      Julie Smith 33 2002 BC
850.      Mary Smith   1998 BC
851.      Edna Smith 24 1983 SK
852.      Mary Smith 25 1999 MB
853.      Ashley Smith 18 2007 ON
854.      Marietta Smoker     BC
855.      Peggy Snow     BC
856.      Ingrid Soet 40 1989 BC
857.      Felicia Solomon 16 2003 MB
858.      Danika Solway 3 2002 SK
859.      Starr Solway   2002 SK
860.      Bernice Soosay   1986 AB
861.      April Sparvier 24 2006 SK
862.      Dorothy Spence 32 1995 BC
863.      Stella St. Arnault 15 1971 AB
864.      Jeanine St. Jean 42 2007 ON
865.      Bernadine Standingready 26 1991 BC
866.      Jacqueline Stanicia 40 2003 MB
867.      Florence Starr   1960s BC
868.      Cindy Stevenson   1999 MB
869.      Dianne Stewart 42 1996 BC
870.      Kathy Stewart   1991 BC
871.      Carol Stewart 0 1972 SK
872.      Evelyn Stewart 25 1998 MB
873.      Jennifer Stewart 36 2010 ON
874.      Luanne Stolarchuk     BC
875.      Stonehouse 24    
876.      Cybil Stoney 37 2009 ON
877.      Donna Stony      
878.      Francesca St-Pierre 14 2007 QC
879.      Vivian Sula Enuaraq 29 2011 NU
880.      Tashina Sutherland 23 2012 BC
881.      Jane Sutherland 20 1984 QC
882.      Meloni Sutton 18 2003 ON
883.      Mandy Suvissak 2 2005 NU
884.      Janet Sylvestre   1994 SK
885.      Vanessa Tagoona 29 2009 ON
886.      Kerry Takkiruq 19 2011 AB
887.      Leslie Talley 29 2010 AB
888.      Norma Tashoots 17 1989 BC
889.      Donna Taylor 36 2007 BC
890.      Noreen Taylor 32 2001 MB
891.      Wanda Taylor 44 2010 ON
892.      Eva Taysup 22 1992 SK
893.      Donna Tebbenham 16 1987 ON
894.      Roxanne Thiara 15 1994 BC
895.      Judith Thibault   2000 ON
896.      Lalonnie Thibert 25 1993 BC
897.      Sonia Thomas 41 2010 BC
898.      Mary Thomas   1971 BC
899.      Patricia Thomas   1984 BC
900.      Stephanie Thomas   1998 BC
901.      Cassandra Thomas 1 2003 MB
902.      Francine Thomas 1 1993 MB
903.      Tina Thompson 20 1993 BC
904.      Josephine Thompson   1971 ON
905.      Ann Threlfell 24 1980 BC
906.      Mary Ann Thunder 83 2014 AB
907.      Arlene Thunder   1994 AB
908.      Heather Thurier 23 2010 AB
909.      Joyce Tillotson 42 1993 SK
910.      Lavina Tocher 35 1991 SK
911.      Destiny Tom 21 2013 BC
912.      Helena Tomat 17 1989 BC
913.      Elsie Tomma     BC
914.      Belinda Tootiak 30 2008 NU
915.      Deborah Toulouse 41 2002 ON
916.      Tami Tracey 17 1990 BC
917.      Heaven Traverse 1 2005 MB
918.      Flora Trout 44 2010 MB
919.      Amber Tuccaro 20 2010 AB
920.      Heather Tuckatuck 23 2001 NWT
921.      Rachel Turley 20 1985 BC
922.      Lucie Turmel   1990 AB
923.      Tatia Ulm 39 2005 MB
924.      Lorna Ulmer-Billy 15 2005 BC
925.      Theresa  Umphrey 39 1993 BC
926.      Sherry Upright 25 1999 AB
927.      Tracy Uttak 26 2012 NU
928.      Margaret Vedan 41 1988 BC
929.      Chantal Venne   1986 BC
930.      Carol Viau 41 1985 ON
931.      Brandy Vittrekwa 17 2014 Y.K.
932.      C. W.   2001 SK
933.      Adriane Wadhams 6 1989 BC
934.      Patricia Wadhams     BC
935.      Christina Wallace 72 2004 BC
936.      Tanya Wallace     BC
937.      Wilhelmina  Wanner 52 1989 AB
938.      Maxine Wapass 23 2002 SK
939.      Shirley Waquan 39 2007 AB
940.      Misty Ward 27 2012 AB
941.      Jennifer Ward 26 2008 MB
942.      Wilma Wasicuna 42 1998 MB
943.      Sophie Wassaykeesic   1976 ON
944.      Kaylee Watchmaker 14 2014 SK
945.      Calinda Waterhen 22 1992 SK
946.      Gail Watt 42 2007 MB
947.      Sarah Wawia   1966 ON
948.      Christine Weller 12 1980 BC
949.      Patricia Wells 28 1975 ON
950.      Frances Wendland   1985 SK
951.      Janine Wesaquate 20 2004 SK
952.      Brandy Wesaquate 29 2012 SK
953.      Glenda Wesley   1994 MB
954.      Mariah Wesley 18 2009 ON
955.      Shelly Westby 47 2005 BC
956.      Jaime Wheeler 20 2000 SK
957.      Marilyn Whiskeyjack 42 2007 BC
958.      Katrina Whitecrow     ON
959.      Celine Whitehawk 0 2008 SK
960.      Rhonda Whitehead   1999 AB
961.      Delores Whiteman 40 1987 SK
962.      Kathleen Whiteman 26 1985 ON
963.      Chasidy Whitford 2 2002 BC
964.      Florence Whitford   1986 AB
965.      Alberta Williams 24 1989 BC
966.      Angela Williams 31 2001 BC
967.      Belinda  Williams   1978 BC
968.      Olivia Williams   1996 BC
969.      Teressa Williams   1988 BC
970.      Betty Williams     BC
971.      Cindy Williams     BC
972.      Geraldine Williams     BC
973.      Ruby Williams     BC
974.      Lisa Willier 15 2004 AB
975.      Adrienne Wilson 6 1989 BC
976.      Emma Wilson 20 2009 BC
977.      Mona Wilson 26 2001 BC
978.      Ramona Wilson   1994 BC
979.      Hillary Wilson 18 2009 MB
980.      Therssa Wilson 30 2010 ON
981.      Brenda Wolfe 31 1999 BC
982.      Wannitta Wolfe 18 1999 SK
983.      Karina Wolfe 20 2010 SK
984.      Sandra Wolfsteiner 16 1981 BC
985.      Sunshine Wood 16 2004 MB
986.      Marie Wood 38 2010 MB
987.      Gail Worm     BC
988.      Lorraine Wray   1990 AB
989.      Chrystal Wright 19 1991 BC
990.      Laurie Wyley 46 2009 AB
991.      Theresa Yakimchuk   1973 ON
992.      Annie Yassie 13 1974 MB
993.      Lisa Young 21 2002 BC
994.      Judy Young 40 2006 AB
995.      Jane Mary     SK
996.      Amelia   1 2004 MB
997.      Melanie   5 2006 NU

**

Suggestions for Further Reading:

Kah’Ki Yaw Ni Wahkomakanak: Neither Indian Princesses Nor Easy Squaws, by Janice Acoose/Misko-Kisikawihkwe

About: In an impressive and powerful first book, Janice Acoose deconstructs stereotypical images of Indigenous women in popular literature. Exposing "literature" as an institution of a Euro-Canadian nation shaped by white, Christian patriarchy, Acoose calls attention to its projections of Indigenous women as Indian princesses, easy squaws, suffering helpless victims and tawny temptresses. With clarity and depth, Acoose traces the bars of literature imprisoning Indigenous women in images born of racism and sexism. From Margaret Laurence to William Patrick Kinsella, she interrogates the words that hurt, challenging liberalism, upending complacency and leaving the prison doors gaping. Iskwewak: Neither Indian Princesses nor Easy Squaws is a strong addition to literary and cultural criticism and an important resource for teachers and students alike.

"The Situation of Indigenous Peoples in Canada," Report of the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, 2014, James Ananya

About: In the present report, the Special Rapporteur on the rights of indigenous peoples examines the human rights situation of indigenous peoples in Canada on the basis of research and information gathered from various sources, including during a visit to Canada from 7 to 15 October 2013. The visit was a follow-up to the 2004 visit to and report on Canada by the previous Special Rapporteur. During his visit, the Special Rapporteur met with government officials at the federal level, and at the provincial level in six provinces. 

Torn from our Midst: Voices of Grief, Healing and Action from the Missing Indigenous Women Conference, by A. Brenda Anderson, Wendee Kubik, and Mary Rucklos Hampton

About: Responding to the profound tragedy inherent in these statistics, more than 300 women and men gathered in August 2008 at a conference entitled Missing Women: Decolonization, Third Wave Feminisms, and Indigenous People of Canada and Mexico. Here, personal stories and theoretical tools were brought together, as academics, activists, family members of missing and murdered women, police, media, policy-makers, justice workers, and members of faith communities offered their perspectives on the issue of racialized, sexualized violence.

Torn from Our Midst includes images and voices from the conference, together with additional reflections, both academic and personal, on the effects of violence and the possibilities for healing. The purpose of this volume is to raise awareness about missing and murdered women and to challenge communities to be courageous enough to look at the heart of this issue, to recognize the systems that allow such atrocities, and to seek justice and healing for all.

Capturing Women: The Manipulation of Cultural Imagery in Canada's Prairie West, by Sarah Carter

About: Consisting of a series of stories, events, and episodes, the book highlights shifting patterns, attitudes, and perspectives toward women in the Prairies. One of Carter's overarching themes is that women are seldom in a position to invent or project their own images, identities, or ideas of themselves, nor are they free to fully author their own texts. Focusing on captivity narratives, a popular genre in the United States that has received little attention in Canada, Carter looks at depictions of white women as victims of Aboriginal aggressors and explores the veracity of a number of accounts, including those of Fanny Kelly and Big Bear captives Theresa Delaney and Theresa Gowanlock, Canada's most famous captives. Carter also examines depictions of Aboriginal women as sinister and dangerous that appeared in the press as well as in government and some missionary publications. These representations of women, and the race and gender hierarchies created by them, endured in the Canadian West long after the last decades of the nineteenth century. Capturing Women fits into a growing body of literature on the question of women, race, and imperialism. Carter adopts a colonial framework, arguing that while the Prairies do not readily conjure up the powerful images of Empire, fundamental features of colonialism are clearly present in the extension of the power of the Canadian state and the maintenance of sharp social, economic, and spatial distinctions between the dominant and subordinate populations. She highlights similarities between images of women on the Prairies and symbols of women in other colonial cultures, such as the memsahib in Britain and the Indian captive in the United States.

Remembering Vancouver’s Disappeared Women: Settler Colonialism and the Difficulty of Inheritance, by Amber Dean (forthcoming from University of Toronto Press)

About: This is the first book-length scholarly examination of the representational practices and cultural productions that bring the story of the disappearances or murders of women from the Downtown Eastside neighbourhood in Vancouver to a wider public. The book examines a diverse array of cultural productions, including police posters, documentary film and photography on the Downtown Eastside, media representations and artists’ renderings of some of the missing women, memorials (both permanent and performance-based), selected media coverage of the Pickton trial, social justice activism, and self-representations by some of the women who have been disappeared (including poetry, journal entries and participation in activist work). The book explores the potential that these various cultural productions hold for provoking a much wider sense of implication in the disappearances or murders of the women in question, and in doing so it provides provocations for reconsidering how and why these events were possible in the first place. (More information here.) 

"What Their Stories Tell Us: Research Findings from the Sisters in Spirit Initiative," by the Native Women’s Association of Canada

About: As of March 31, 2010, the Native Women’s Association of Canada (NWAC) has gathered information about the disappearance or death of more than 580 Aboriginal women and girls across Canada. This finding is the result of quantitative and qualitative research carried out over a period of five years. In 2005, NWAC secured funding for the Sisters In Spirit initiative—a five-year research, education and policy initiative supported by Status of Women Canada—to address the root causes, circumstances and trends of missing and murdered Aboriginal women and girls. NWAC has collected the evidence to document, in systematic way, issues of violence that women, families, and communities had been pointing to for the last generation.

Book Cover Conquest

Conquest: Sexual Violence and American Indian Genocide, by Andrea Smith

About: A recognized Native American scholar and co-founder of INCITE! Women of Color Against Violence, the largest grassroots, multiracial feminist organization in the country, Andrea Smith (Cherokee) is an emerging leader in progressive political circles. In Conquest, Smith places Native American women at the center of her analysis of sexual violence, challenging both conventional definitions of the term and conventional responses to the problem.

Beginning with the impact of the abuses inflicted on Native American children at state-sanctioned boarding schools from the 1880s to the 1980s, Smith adroitly expands our conception of violence to include environmental racism, population control and the widespread appropriation of Indian cultural practices by whites and other non-natives. Smith deftly connects these and other examples of historical and contemporary colonialism to the high rates of violence against Native American women—the most likely women in the United States to die of poverty-related illnesses, be victims of rape and suffer partner abuse. 

Finding Dawn, by Christine Welsh, National Film Board 2006

About: Acclaimed Métis filmmaker Christine Welsh presents a compelling documentary that puts a human face on a national tragedy: the murders and disappearances of an estimated 500 Aboriginal women in Canada over the past 30 years. This is a journey into the dark heart of Native women's experience in Canada. From Vancouver's Skid Row to the Highway of Tears in northern British Columbia, to Saskatoon, this film honours those who have passed and uncovers reasons for hope. Finding Dawn illustrates the deep historical, social and economic factors that contribute to the epidemic of violence against Native women in this country.

*****

Angela Sterritt

Biography: Angela Sterritt is an award-winning Gitxsan journalist, artist, writer and filmmaker from British Columbia who is a currently a CBC TV reporter. Sterritt has worked as a journalist for close to 15 years and has been with CBC since 2003.

Sterritt was recently awarded a prestigious William Southam Journalism Fellowship at Massey College in Toronto and is the first Aboriginal person to ever received the award since its inception in 1962. She recently completed two video documentaries for Journalists for Human Rights and acts as a consultant for various media clients.

Sterritt and her production team at CBC’s 8th Fire earned a nomination for a Canadian Screen Award for their digital platform with the groundbreaking TV series on Indigenous history and current realities.

She's also won Best Radio of the year at the ImagineNative Film Festival and two CBC Presidents awards for her work as a producer on CBC’s 8th Fire and a reporter at CBC’s Aboriginal Digital Unit.

Sterritt is also a visual artist and took on the dream of her life when she  animated and exhibited five of her original paintings on over 300 LCD screens on the Toronto Transit system, 33 English malls, and the Calgary Airport. The theme was the 1200+ missing and murdered Indigenous women in Canada.

She is now working on a non-fiction book and just closed an art show in Saskatchewan. She is also illustrating a number of books.

March 6, 2015
Books mentioned in this post

Capturing Women

The Manipulation of Cultural Imagery in Canada's Prairie West
edition:Hardcover
also available: Paperback
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